Mutual Intercultural Relations In Plural Societies (MIRIPS)

An international collaboration, the MIRIPS project investigates feelings of cultural security, ethnocentrism, hierarchy, and reciprocity in multiple societies.

CACR is pleased to host this page for the MIRIPS project. MIRIPS is an international collaboration led by John Berry at Queen's University in Canada.

MIRIPS is a collaborative project being carried out in a number of countries, using a common research framework and a common research instrument. We are investigating whether feelings of cultural security, ethnocentrism, hierarchy, and reciprocity are found in multiple societies.

  • Does involvement in both national and ethnic culture promote confidence in identity and a sense of well-being?
  • Is there a relationship between that secure feeling and certain intercultural attitudes?

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A general description of the project can be found in the MIRIPS Project Description. Note that, unlike earlier international projects dealing with acculturation and intercultural relations, we are looking at the ways variables relate to each other in different cultures rather than just how variable scores compare.

The MIRIPS Context Variables document describes the information that can be obtained from national and international archives, such as national censuses and surveys. These allow us to situate the individual findings within a broader frame of reference, and help us to interpret the results.


The MIRIPS Questionnaire shows questions used in the MIRIPS project. Some variables are presented in two formats, one for use with non-dominant samples (eg., immigrant and ethnocultural groups, national/regional minorities) and the other for use with the dominant national (or dominant regional) samples.

Socio-cultural adaptation scale

As an option for assessing Sociocultural Adaptation, you may wish to use this revised version.


Finally, a full list of MIRIPS participants is available, giving details of their samples: MIRIPS Partners and Samples. They come from Australia, Canada, China, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Malta, New Zealand, Portugal, Russia, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey.

Presentations and publications

MIRIPS presentations and publications can be accessed here.


For questions about MIRIPS, contact John Berry at

Notes about variations

Variations across countries in the questionnaire are to be expected. This is because each society has its own conceptions, terminologies and history of cultural diversity and intercultural relations. The questionnaire should be useable in two kinds of societies. One kind are those that are experiencing flows of international immigration, and the presence of ethnocultural (ethnic) groups (such as Australia, Canada., New Zealand). The second kinds of society are those with longstanding regional cultures (such as China, India and Russia) where internal migration (often from rural areas to the metropolises) is taking place.

Variations in questionnaire content reflect two kinds of issues:

  1. First, the core questionnaire needs to be adapted to be appropriate to each society and for each ethnic group. These adaptations are indicated by [ ] in the questionnaire, where each researcher should insert the appropriate group name.
  2. The second variation is for participating researchers to add variables to the core questionnaire, in order to meet the needs of their funding agencies, or to study issues that are locally prominent.

In all cases, it will be important to carry out pilot studies to ensure that the questions are well-understood, and that they give acceptable statistical distributions and reliabilities.

As outlined in the in the project description document, MIRIPS is designed to promote the idea that intercultural relations can be best understood when both dominant and non-dominant groups are sampled within societies, obtaining data based on similar questions. This mutual approach combines the research traditions of acculturation and ethnic relations into one study. We are looking, in particular, at two kinds of relationships: the role of security in intercultural relationships; and the existence of reciprocity between groups in their relationships.