Publications Marc Aurel Schnabel

Full list of publications by Marc Aurel Schnabel

Books and Edited Books

S. Aydin and M.A. Schnabel (2018): Decoding Kashgar: China’s Westernmost City on the Historical Silk Road. DARA, Wellington, 303 pages, ISBN: 9780473399979 (Contribution 50%) http://www.lulu.com/shop/serdar-aydin-and-marc-aurel-schnabel/decoding-kashgar/ebook/product-23455116.html

This book portrays Kashgar, the westernmost city in China and once considered one of the best preserved examples of a traditional Islamic city in Central Asia. With a renewal project, nearly 80 percent of the old houses have been replaced with new ones that just look sufficiently old to make a visitor feel in a fictional world of Kashgar’s maze-like urban pattern with narrow alleyways and tunnels. “The fictional is authentic; the authentic is fictional.” Celebrating this dualism between fiction and authenticity, this book is an attempt for a visual integration between them with 13 sections, each with their own stories and themes based on content ranging from historical architecture to people of Kashgar and from black-andwhite urban scenes to digital reconstructions.

M. A. Schnabel (2017): Back to the Future: The Next 50 Years, (51st International Conference of the Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA)), Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA), 840pgs.

http://anzasca.net/paper/2017-conference-proceedings/

This volume contains the refereed papers of the 51st International Conference of the Architectural Science Association Conference, held at the School of Architecture, Victoria University of Wellington. They provide a snapshot of current cutting edge research in the field from around the world curated under the Theme “Back to the Future: The Next 50 Years”.

P. JANSSEN, P. LOH, A. RAONIC, M.A. SCHNABEL (eds.), 2017, Protocols, Flows and Glitches, Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA) 2017, The Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Hong Kong, 906 pgs.
http://papers.cumincad.org/cgi-bin/works/Search?search=caadria+%2B2017&x=0&y=0t

This volume contains the refereed papers of the 22nd International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, held at the Department of Architecture, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou. They provide a research in the field from around the world curated under the theme ‘Protocols, Flows and Glitches’.

S. CHIEN, S. CHOO, M.A. SCHNABEL, W. NAKAPAN, M. J. KIM, S. ROUDAVSKI (eds.), 2016, Living Systems and Micro-Utopias: Towards Continuous Designing, Proceedings of the 21st International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia CAADRIA 2016, ca 800pgs.
http://caadria.org/cnf/2016.conf.html

This volume contains the refereed papers of the 21st International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, held at the School of Architecture, Melbourne University, They provide a research in the field from around the world curated under the theme ‘Living Systems and Micro-Utopias: Towards Continuous Designing’.

Y. IKEDA, C.M. HERR, D. HOLZER, S. KAIJIMA, M.J. KIM and M.A. SCHNABEL (eds.), 2015, Emerging Experience in Past, Present and Future of Digital Architecture, Proceedings of the 20th International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia CAADRIA 2015, 940pgs.
http://caadria.org/cnf/2015.conf.html

This volume contains the refereed papers of the 20th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, held at the School of Architecture, KNU, Daegu, Korea, They provide a research in the field from around the world curated under the theme ‘Emerging Experience in Past, Present and Future’.

F. MADEO and M.A. SCHNABEL (2014): Across: Architectural Research through to Practice: 48th International Conference of the Architectural Science Association. Edited by Francesca Madeo and M.A. SCHNABEL; The Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA), ISBN: 978-0-9923835-1-0 840 pgs.
http://anzasca.net/category/conference-papers/2014-conference-papers/

This volume contains the refereed papers of the 48th International Conference of the Architectural Science Association Conference, held at the School of Architecture, Politechnical university of Genoa, Italy They provide a snapshot of current cutting edge research in the field from around the world curated under the Theme “Across: Architectural Research through to Practice’.

M.A. SCHNABEL, ed. (2013): Cutting Edge: 47th International Conference of the Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA), Sydney, Australia: The Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA), 692 pgs.
http://anzasca.net/category/conference-papers/2013-conference-papers/

This volume contains the refereed papers of the 47th International Conference of the Architectural Science Association Conference, held at the School of Architecture, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China, They provide a snapshot of current cutting edge research in the field from around the world curated under the Theme “Cutting Edge’.

M. C. HERR, N. GU, S. ROUDAVSKI & M.A. SCHNABEL eds. (2011): Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia/CAADRIA, Hong Kong, 773 pgs.
http://caadria.org/cnf/2011.conf.html

This volume contains the refereed papers of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, held at the School of Architecture, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China, They provide a research in the field from around the world curated under the theme ‘Circuit Bending, Breaking & Mending’.

X. WANG and M.A. SCHNABEL (2009): eds.: Mixed Reality Applications in Architecture, Design, and Construction, Springer, The Netherlands, 234 pgs.
http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-1-4020-9088-2

Mixed Reality is moving out of the research-labs into our daily lives. It plays an increasing role in architecture, design and construction. State-of-the-art research projects on theories and applications within Mixed Reality are curated covering current topics in architecture, design collaboration, construction and education.

M.A. SCHNABEL, R. BESON and D. BUTLER (2007) eds: 8448cubed, Gaffa Gallery, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, 20 pgs.
http://books.google.com.hk/books/about/8448_Cubed.html?id=xEbDHwAACAAJ&redir_esc=y

8448cubed is an architectural design exhibition showcasing creative digital design techniques. It explores how the coupling of architectural designs with digital modelling and manufacturing methods allow for a deeper comprehension and experience of space and form. The core of this collection is held together by the idea of spatial concepts within constraints of a cube 8448 millimetres in volume. 8448cubed offers a unique opportunity to experience the digitalized future in the field of architecture and design.

M.A. SCHNABEL and N. BOWLLER (2007) eds: Disparallel Spaces, Tin Shed Gallery, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, 46 pgs.
http://books.google.com.hk/books?id=QX6cGQAACAAJ&dq=Disparallel+Spaces&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ly_CUsGSFuaZiAekhIDIDA&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA

Disparallel Spaces is a curated volume of an architectural design exhibition showcasing creative digital design techniques. It explores how the coupling of architectural design with digital modelling and fabrication methods allows for a deeper comprehension and experience of space and form. It confronts problems in architectural design from a diversity of multi-faceted and eccentric approaches, setting the trend for novel viewpoints of innovation and spatial design. It offers a unique opportunity to experience the digitalized future in the field of architecture.

Book Chapters:

T.T. LO, M.A. SCHNABEL, T. MOLETA (2018): Digitally-Built Housing Communities. How Possible Is It?, Housing the Future – Volume 3, Graham Cairns (ed.), Libri Publishing, London, UK,, 10pgs (in print for Q1/2018)

This research describes a design research that could be employed in urban contexts such as Singapore, a territory characterised by high rise living and a dense urban environment. It seeks to explore the potential using digital tools facilitate collaborative design processes between communities and architects and, importantly, between the individuals of those communities with the hope of identifying both a practical template for future ‘virtual collaborative design models’, and lessons about community participation and the community building through design. The context of this research is one in which urban populations are increasing and high-rise density living in cities is becoming more prominent. HOWEver, it is also a context in which it is generally accepted that the social interaction between the people living in these high-rise buildings and increasingly dense cities is reducing. Even between neighbours living next to each other there is rarely much interaction and the close community bonds that once existed in smaller village and town communities are clearly declining today as the majority of the world’s population lives in urban settings.

S. AYDIN, M.A. SCHNABEL and I. SAYAH (2017): Association rule mining to assess user-generated content in digital heritage: Participatory content making in ‘The Museum of Gamers’. Future Trajectories of Computation in Design: CAADfutures. In Communications in Computer and Information Science (CCIS), eds. by G. Çağdaş et al., Springer, Netherlands, pgs 20

Association rule mining is one of several approaches in game design for discovering correlations among user-generated content items. This paper aims to aid the digital heritage field by analysing user preferences in interactive environments designed for participatory cultural heritage making. Textual and diagrammatic explication of the feedback mechanism introduces the universalization of the knowledge gained in this research that is supported with the out-come of a workshop which offered two gamified interactive environments. Three key pleasures of cyberspace in digital heritage are extended from immersion to meaningful experience and to transformation. User-generated content engenders meaningful correlations that help improve and evaluate digital heritage applications. Qualitative findings explicate the relationship of ‘The Museum of Gamers’ with the authenticity issue. This paper is among the first to investigate the association rule finding methods in relation to indexical authenticity in digital heritage.

Y. HE and M.A. SCHNABEL (2017): Computational Architectural Integrated Implementation: A Digital Process from Initial Design to Fabrication, Challenges for Technology Innovation: An Agenda for the Future, eds. by Fernando Moreira da Silva, Helena Bartolo, Paolo Bartolo, Rita Almendra, Filipa Roseta, Henrique Amorim Almeida, Ana Cristina Lemos, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, London, UK pp. 435-439 DOI: 10.1201/9781315198101-87
http://www.crcnetbase.com/doi/abs/10.1201/9781315198101-87

As architectural design and fabrication processes are highly digitized, computer science theories such as Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) have tremendous potential to deal with new challenges in architectural research and application. Exploring architecture as a product, we set up the framework of Computer Architectural Integrated Implementation (CAII) that is based on CIM theories. First, the definition and concepts of CAII are presented; then a flexible design system that is based on CIM is described. Next, CAII is applied in a practical project. We built up a virtual platform for handling various information and data streams. The outcome of the project presents the practical value of a CAII process. Lastly, some development trends are discussed, including integration of components and potential integrated fabrication with robots. Centred on an integrated system CAII attempts to reduce error, to response more efficiently, and to be inclusive to various design processes and digital fabrication techniques.

S. AYDIN and M.A. SCHNABEL (2016): The Museum of Gamers: Unmediated cultural heritage through gaming, Cultural Heritage in a Changing World, eds. by Karol Jan Borowiecki, Neil Forbes, Antonella Fresa, Springer International Publishing AG, pp. 125-141
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-29544-2_8

The Museum of Gamers sits at the convergence of these contrasting realities. On the one hand, there is a cultural artefact that has a concrete value attached to its authenticity. On the other, its digital interpretation has its own systems of values. And the visitor cares a GLAM’s auxillary services as much as the objects. As information is now available everywhere, people expect a new normal from museums besides mere objects and explanatory texts next to them. As the emblematic medium of contemporary societies games offer engagement methods. Recent marketing strategies such as loyalty games and gamification prove that use of technology is moving ever closer to video games and game design methods. The Museum of Gamers is a conceptual proposal not only for the dissemination of cultural heritage information but also for its production through contemporary media technologies.

T.T. LO, M.A. SCHNABEL and G. YAN (2015): ModRule, A User-Centric Mass Housing Design Platform The next city - New technologies and the future of the built environment CAADfutures, in Communications in Computer and Information Science (CCIS), eds. by G. Celani, Springer, Netherlands, pp. 236-254
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-47386-3_13

This paper presents a novel platform, ModRule, designed and developed to promote and facilitate collaboration between architects and future occupants during the design stage of mass housing buildings. Architects set the design-framework and parameters of the system, which allows the users to set their space requirements, budgets, etc., and define their desired way of living. The system utilizes gamification methodologies as a reference to promote incentives and user-friendliness for the layperson who has little or no architectural background. This enhanced integration of a both bottom-up approach (user-centric/player) with a top-down approach (architect-centric/game-maker) will greatly influence how architects design high rise living. By bridging the gap between the architect and the user, this development aims to instill a greater sense of belonging to people, as well as providing architects with a better understanding of how to give people more control over their living spaces. The paper also presents an evaluation of a design process that employed ModRule.

M.A. SCHNABEL and T. KVAN: 3D Crossover: exploring objets digitalise: Critical Concepts in Architecture: Digital Architecture, ed Mark Bury, Routledge, UK, 15 pages (forthcoming)
http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415816625/

By merging a range of digital and physical media, the architectural design process is enriched by different perceptions, comprehensions and conceptions of spatial volumes within both physical and virtual environments. With the interchanging and crossing over of design environments from reality to virtuality the limits of each one are dismantled, both realms can be brought together in an overall process that led to alternative form findings and resulting designs. The research lies in the tradition of artists who push media to explore new interpretations both of the media themselves and of their artwork.

M.A. SCHNABEL (2013): Cutting Edge in Architectural Science: Editorial Introduction. Cutting Edge: 47th International Conference of the Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA) ed. by M.A. SCHNABEL. pp. 1-3. Sydney, Australia: The Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA)
http://anzasca.net/category/conference-papers/2013-conference-papers/

Especially in the larger Australasian context, with its philosophical richness and its rising influence on the world stage, Architectural Science develops rapidly and relevant discourses and, possibly, appropriate cures are presented. The on-going progresses of research over the past decades present a successful engagement where holistic appreciations of systemic interdependencies and self-cultivating consciousness have long traditions. These developments demonstrate that research in the fields of architectural science have neither reached a point of saturation with respect to its topics of interest, nor have they arrived at a set of conclusively developed standards for valuing the rich and varied work conducted under its umbrella. This indicates that exciting further advances can be expected on the near future.

M.A. SCHNABEL (2013): Bi-tonal Architectural Narratives - Design Expressions in Manga: Global Design & Local Materialization: CAAD futures, in Communications in Computer and Information Science (CCIS), eds. by Jianlong Zhang and Chengyu Sun, Springer, Netherlands, pp. 187-197
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-389-0_18

Bi-tonal, or black and white architectural renderings are a common medium to present an architectural design that goes beyond factual representations of dimensions of length, width and height, materials, structure or technical details. An architectural presentation that is based on a story-telling approach, akin to comic or manga style, adds intangible expressions, which allows communicating key elements as well as concepts, development and overall aspects of a design easily to laypersons and professional alike. This research presents how designers develop a narrative of their architectural proposals using a bi-tonal visualization and story-telling methodology.

Q. DAI and M.A. SCHNABEL (2013): Relationship between Mean Radiant Temperature and Building Type for Pedestrians in Rotterdam: Global Design & Local Materialization: CAAD futures, in Communications in Computer & Information Science (CCIS), eds. by C Sun & J Zhang, Springer, Netherlands, pp. 306-314
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-38974-0_29

Outdoor thermal comfort for pedestrians becomes important issues in urban planning affecting everyone’s daily lives. Mean Radiant Temperature (Tmrt) is one of the most important parameters in micro climate. This research presents a computerised model with variable & typical building types to simulate pavements’ Tmrt spatial variations. Results are compared & relationships between thermal comfort index PET or PMV presented. The outcome is a reference for architects & planners to make design decisions on quantifying the thermal comfort in specific urban environment & their bldg types.

E.L.C. HOWE & M.A. SCHNABEL (2012): The Changing Face of Problem-Based Learning – Social networking and interprofessional collaboration: Researching Problem-based Learning in Clinical Education: The Next Generation eds. by S Bridges, C McGrath & T Colman-Whitehill, Springer, The Netherlands, pp. 121-138.
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-007-2515-7_8

Social networking and interprofessional collaboration is changing the face of problem-based learning (PBL). An interprofessional PBL programme addressing a common public health issue was undertaken. The PBL programme employed social networking as a platform of engagement between peers and facilitators in two countries developing solutions to a problem of communication of a health message to varied community groups. In developing collective intelligence social networking offers the opportunity to extend use of PBL beyond geographic and professional boundaries provided synchronous augmented communication is possible.

M.A. SCHNABEL (2012): Learning parametric designing: Computational Design Methods and Technologies: Applications in CAD, CAM and CAE Education, eds. by N Gu & X Wang, IGI Global, Hershey, PA, pp. 56-70.8.
http://www.igi-global.com/chapter/learning-parametric-designing/62941

Parametric designing, its instruments, and techniques move architectural design education towards novel avenues of deep learning. Akin to learning and working environments of engineering and manufacturing, it offers similar advantages for architects. Yet it is not as simple as using another tool; parametric designing fundamentally shifts the engagement with the design problem. Parametric designing allows architects to be substantially deeper involved in the overall design and development process extending it effectively beyond production and lifecycle. Leaning parametric design strategies enhance architects’ critical engagement with their designs and their communication. Subsequently, the computational aid of parametric modelling alters substantially how and what students learn and architects practice.

M.A. SCHNABEL & R.I. CHEN (2011): Design Interaction via Multi-touch: Cooperative Design Visualisation & Engineering, 8th International Conference, CDVE (Proceedings), ed. by Yuhao Luo, Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 6874, pp. 14-21.
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-23734-8_3

This research presents a novel multi-touch-tabletop tool for design-collaborations and -communication tasks employing three-dimensional digitalized models. The system allows users to communicate and share their ideas by manipulating the reference and their own input simultaneously by simply using intuitive gestures. Haptic and proprioceptive perception of tangible representations are perceived more readily and our system provides an increased potential to compensate for the low spatial cognition of its users. We combine both model-based and participatory approaches with the multi-touch tabletop system setups, which differs considerably from conventional visual representations for collaborative design. Since the multi-touch design interaction allows users to engage intuitively within virtual design environments, it presents the next generation of common graphical user interfaces.

Y. QU, M.A. SCHNABEL, T. T. WONG & P.A. Heng (2011): Level-of-Detail Line Drawing: Proceedings of International Workshop on Image Analysis 2010 (IWIA2010) ed. by D. Xia and P Montesinos, Collection Mathématiques & Informatique, Presses des Mines, Paris, France, pp. 193-202.
http://www.pressesdesmines.com/proceedings-of-the-third-international-workshop-on-image-analysis.html

Edges on images convey the inherent meanings of the scenery. This research proposes a framework to generate a set of line drawings with level of details from input images. On top of traditional edge detection methods, which provide no flexibility of detail control, the research proposes a novel line importance model that ranks the lines according to their visual salience nature. With the presented method, users can easily remove noisy edges, more importantly, different level-of-detail line maps, from structural line to detail lines, can be generated by simply tuning one parameter.

R.I. CHEN and M.A. SCHNABEL (2011): Multi-touch - the future of design interaction: Designing Together: CAAD futures (Proceedings) eds. by P Leclercq, A Heylighen & G Martin, LUCID - Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium, pp. 557-572.
http://www.caadfutures.org/proceedings_11.htm

This research presents a novel multi-touch-tabletop instrument combined with three-dimensional digitalized models for design-collaborations and -communication tasks. By using intuitive gestures, the system allows users from various disciplines to communicate and share their ideas by manipulating the reference and their own input simultaneously. The research found that forms are perceived and understood more readily through haptic and proprioceptive perception of tangible representations. The novel system provides increased potential to compensate for the low spatial cognition of its users. The innovative integration is described and the outcome shows that the intuitive user interaction in virtual design activities goes beyond the common graphical user interfaces.

M.A. SCHNABEL (2011): The Immersive Virtual Environment Design Studio: Collaborative Design in Virtual Environments eds. by Xiangyu Wang & Jerry Jen-Hung Tsai in series of Intelligent Systems, Control and Automation: Science and Engineering Tzafestas, S.G Dordrecht, Springer, The Netherlands, vol.48, pp. 177-191

http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-94-007-0605-7_16

This chapter examines the implications of spatial design, such as perception, comprehension, communication and collaboration with spatial volumes within an ‘Immersive Virtual Environment Design Studio’. This realm can empower designers to express, explore and convey their imagination more easily. For these reasons the very different nature of virtual environments may allow architects to create novel designs that make use of the unique properties of this realm. The outcomes of this research support this.

Y. QU & M.A. SCHNABEL (2009): Drawing Architecture using Manga Techniques: Managing IT in Construction / Managing Construction for Tomorrow, Attila Dikbas, Esin Ergen, Heyecan Girtli (eds.), CRC Press, Balkema, Taylor & Francis Group, Leiden, The Netherlands, pp. 567-576
http://www.crcpress.com/product/isbn/9780415567442

Manga is a type of stylized bi-tonal drawings pleasing in terms of screen variety and tidy lines. This chapter presents a novel method to draw architecture, spatial compositions and their details, including colours, textures, and tones, using manga drawing techniques. The research found the optimal solution for screening during the bi-tonal transformation, and set of ideally abstracted line drawings. This offers a unique rendering appearance for architectural design. The results demonstrate successfully that the method generates manga-like drawings from an architectural image that preserve architectural key-elements, such as surface or material properties.

M.A. SCHNABEL (2009): Framing Mixed Reality: Mixed Reality Applications in Architecture, Design, and Construction eds. by X Wang & MA SCHNABEL, Springer, The Netherlands, pp. 3-11
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4020-9088-2_1

New ‘realities’ are emerging. Novel concepts such as Mixed Reality, Augmented Reality and Augmented Virtuality and their supporting technologies influence architecture, design and construction. The various realms, their research and applications and their relevance to the field are presented and critically reflected upon. Finally the Reality-Virtuality Continuum is analysed regarding its engagement, abstraction and information overlay.

M.A. SCHNABEL (2009): Interplay Of Domains: New Dimensions of Design Learning in Mixed Realities: Mixed Reality Applications in Architecture, Design, and Construction eds. by X Wang & MA SCHNABEL, Springer, Netherlands, pp. 219-226
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4020-9088-2_14

There is a distance between the idea of a design in the imagination and its representation, communication and realisation. Each tool places different demands on the designer and each, through inherent characteristics and affordances, introduces reinterpretations of the design idea, thus imposing a divergence between the idea and the expression of the idea. Most researchers of Mixed Realities have focused on their use as presentation or simulation environments. For these reasons the very different nature of MR with its unique properties allows architects to create designs that other instruments do not offer. The research addresses issues for the first time.

M.A. SCHNABEL & E.L.C. HOWE (2009): Client design literacy and consultancy skills in architectural education: Computing, Cognition and Education - Recent Research in the Architectural Sciences, eds. by Ning Gu, Michael Ostwald & Anthony Williams, Australian & New Zealand Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA) and University of Newcastle, Australia, pp. 205-218
http://hdl.handle.net/1959.13/917683

The interprofessional Dentistry/Design-Project is an innovative method of teaching students the skills required for successful promotion of communication and consultancy in a public realm. It aims to enable students to develop evidence-based consultancy appropriate for a target audience. The chapter presents the method and outcomes of student groups that successfully developed an oral health promotion program. The research presents the interprofessional learning project as a successful pedagogy enabling architectural students to understand and use communication and consultancy skills effectively for collaboration across disciplines and faculties.

M. PAULINI and M.A. SCHNABEL (2009): Context-Aware Urban Exploration: A Paradigm for Non-Directed Exploration in Mobile Computing: Handbook of Research on Mobile Multimedia, Second Edition ed. by I.K. IBRAHIM, IGI Global, Inc., Hershey, PA, pp. 662-672.
http://www.igi-global.com/chapter/context-aware-urban-exploration/21036

This chapter describes the rationale for a navigational system that supports context-based exploration of the urban environment. While many navigational tools support way finding, they are based on targeted search, requiring the user to have a predetermined destination. Existing applications do not offer navigational mechanisms that base their recommendations on the user’s unique context information. Customised recommendations present the user with relevant routes they may not have discovered on their own. The framework for this research presents suggested routes to the user according to their unique contextual setting, which is anticipated to allow a more explorative engagement with their physical environment.

M.A. SCHNABEL (2007): Parametric Designing in Architecture: Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAADfutures) 2007 eds. by A Dong, A v Moere & J S Gero, Springer, The Netherlands, pp. 237-250
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4020-6528-6_18

Parametric design techniques offer obvious advantages for engineering and manufacturing processes, now architects emerge to apply these methods in their creation of design suggesting solutions at an earlier stage of the process. Through the coupling of architectural design with parametric modelling methods, the paper presents novel techniques that enhance architects' contribution to building processes based on parametric design creation. This allows a deeper comprehension of the design objectives and aids designers in their decisions to find solutions

M.A. SCHNABEL (2006): Rethinking Parameters: Urban Islands vol 1: Cuttings ed. by J. Jakovich, Sydney University Press, Sydney, Australia, pp. 185-195
http://purl.library.usyd.edu.au/sup/9781920898557

Architectural Design Studios are an essential learning experience for architectural students. Their traditions and proceedings are well established. The studio is informed and supplemented by events, the city and the built environment, all of which contribute to the increase in participants’ knowledge. This in turn both contributes to and reflects about the learning environment and society in general. Hitherto there has been a gap between skills training and the application of knowledge within the cultural context of society. The chapter presents the research and the contribution to feed back into the larger society.

M.A. SCHNABEL (2005): Interplay of Domains: Learning from the Past a Foundation for the Future eds. by B Martens & A Brown, Oesterreichischer Kunst- und Kulturverlag, Vienna, Austria, pp. 11-20http://www.caadfutures.org/proceedings_05.htm

A diversified, open-ended, and critical approach of architectural design that interplays with a variety of media, suggests an innovative development to gain new spatial solutions. Architects and designers are aware of these possibilities by integrating physical and digital media during their design process, yet the creative potentials of these media are rarely used to their full potentials. A wilful interplay with the design media and the process offers the possibility to dismantle the limits of each domain and explore the design itself in unorthodox ways. The chapter presents the research that follows the tradition of artists, who explore media in unusual ways, new architectural interpretations emerge, reflecting on media and architectural design.

C. LANGHOF, A. KEMPERS, M.A. SCHNABEL (2000): Kohärente Heterogenität, Bahnhofsbereich Friedrichstrasse: Berlin_Stadt ohne Form: Strategien einer anderen Architektur ed by P Oswalt, Prestel Verlag München, Germany, pp. 155-157
http://books.google.com.hk/books/about/Berlin_Stadt_ohne_Form.html?id=npUVAQAAIAAJ&redir_esc=y

The research explored from an architectural professional perspective of how urban renewal can be developed using unique digital design methodologies that generate coherent heterogeneity. Based on the research a design was generated and submitted to an international architectural completion winning first price.

C. LANGHOF & M.A. SCHNABEL (1994): The World of Ms. XXX:City invasions: 14 international projects for Vienna ed. by K. Ivancsics, Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, pp. 141-143
http://www.abebooks.com/Stadteinf%C3%A4lle-City-Invasions-Internationale-Projekte-Wien/9031584274/bd

The research explored how urban development can be generated by employing digital design processes that reflect the nomadic nature of modern dwellers. The research led to a design proposal presented at the 14th Vienna Architectural Centre's Architectural Completion. It was awarded the highly recognised Otto Wagner Urban Design Award.

Research Journals:

M.A. Schnabel and B. Haslop (2018): Glitch Architecture, International Journal of Architectural Computing (IJAC),  vol. 16, 3, 22 pgs

http://journals.sagepub.com/toc/jaca/16/2

Architectural designs are visualised on computer screens through arrays of pixels and vectors. These representations differ from the reality of buildings, which over time will unavoidably age and decay. How, then, do digital designs age over time? Do we interpret glitching as a sudden malfunction or fault in the computation of the design’s underlying data, or as digital decay resulting not from the wear and tear of tangible materials but from the decomposition of the binary code, or from system changes that cannot appropriately interpret the data? By exploring a series of experimental design practices for deployments and understandings that are the consequence of malfunctions during computational processing, glitches are reinterpreted. Advancing from 2D glitch art techniques into 3D interpretations, the research employs a methodology of systematic iterative processes to explore design emergence based on glitches. Ultimately, the study presents digital architectural form existing solely in the digital realm, confidently standing as an architectural interpretation of computational glitches through both its design process and aesthetic outcome. Thus, this research intends to bring a level of authenticity to the field through 3D interpretations of glitch in an architectural form.

Y. He and M. A. Schnabel (2018): An Approach for Daylight Calculation of a Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) Façade, Architectural Science Review, Taylor and Francis, London, United Kingdom, vol.61 (3), 15 pgs

https://doi.org/10.1080/00038628.2018.1470964

Contemporary use of Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) façades is increasing rapidly. However, A BIPV façade can impact natural lighting because of opaque solar cells in the panels. This paper explicates an approach for daylight calculation in an indoor environment with the BIPV facade system installed. We discuss how theoretical simulations are accomplished with parametric tools. In the comparison, results from the simulation and the calculation are matched, especially in the case of the overcast sky. By these means our approach can be proved effective. In summary, our research provides an accurate and quick approach to daylight calculation, with due consideration given to practical factors in various aspects.

Y. Zhang and M.A. Schnabel (2018): Parametric Modelling in Form-Based Urban Design Code for high-density cities, Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, USA, 20 pgs. (forthcoming)

M.A. Schnabel, Y. Zhang, and S. Aydin (2017): Using parametric modelling in Form-Based Code design for high-dense cities, Procedia Engineering, Vol 18, 2017, pp. 1379-1387. DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2017.04.301

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877705817318088

With the development of parametric design practices in the larger built environment, this paper proposes to merge parametric methodology with Form-Based Code in high-dense cities. There is no adoption of FBC in high-dense cities. Due to the complicated nature of population concentration, urban planning of high-dense cities is in great need of efficient approaches like Form-Based Code. This paper presents the necessities, misconceptions, and challenges of applying Form-Based Code in high-dense cities, and then evaluates the parametric modelling methods which can support Form-Based Code generation in high-dense cities.

C. Van Velthooven and M.A. Schnabel (2017): Hyperlocalization through Architecture & Climatology. International Journal of Parallel Emergent and Distributed Systems, pp. 1-7. DOI: 10.1080/17445760.2017.1390105

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17445760.2017.1390105

This research uses Wellington's wind climate as the pivot of inquiry in all of its complexity, and explores design narratives that best respond to those circumstances in order to generate building forms with the capacity to emulate a 'hyperlocalized' typology by utilizing contextual wind data as the driver in the design process. Emergent systems provide the models and processes of the wind dynamics in Wellington so that this naturally occurring phenomenon can be explored for the creation of artificial systems, designed to produce hyperlocalized forms derived from its immediate climate.

S. Meekings and M.A. Schnabel (2017): Big Data on Individuals in the Architectural Design Process: Combining Individual’s Data with the Architects Toolset. International Journal of Parallel Emergent and Distributed Systems, pp. 1-7. DOI: 10.1080/17445760.2017.1390091

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17445760.2017.1390091

It is increasingly common to live in continual flux between reality and virtuality – for architecture this means a dwindling focus on the built environment. For the architectural discipline to be resilient in the face of these rapidly changing user-demands, a proactive relationship with our digital environment is required. This paper explores how personal big data could be used, with the potential to impact future architectural workflows. We present ways that personal data can be used to develop special connections for architectural design processes. By comparing multiple single-person data sets two key issues are discussed; sourcing relevant data and three-dimensionalizing this data with a particular focus on connections. The paper concludes with a discussion about the future of data as an instrument to aid architectural design processes

B. Haslop, M.A. Schnabel, S. Aydin (2017): Digital Decay. International Journal of Parallel Emergent and Distributed Systems, pp 1-7. DOI: 10.1080/17445760.2017.1390092

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17445760.2017.1390092

This research presents a methodology that interprets the inevitable decay of digital processes involved in architectural design. Employing a data driven process of experimental computational design, we are advancing a type of digital decay, i.e. glitch, from its non-graphical and 2D image representations into meaningful 3D architectural interpretation. We are particularly interested in how the effects of glitch can be instrumental to generating 3D spaces that rectify digital authenticity responsive to adaptation to digital workflows.

J. Holth and M.A. Schnabel (2017): Immersive Virtual Environments as a Tool to Explore Perceptional Space. International Journal of Parallel Emergent and Distributed Systems, pp 1-7. DOI: 10.1080/17445760.2017.1390090

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17445760.2017.1390090

This research explores the parallelism between architecture and psychology by assessing their combined ability to effect a user's perception of spatial qualities using an Immersive Virtual Environment (IVE). A review of the software and hardware required in IVE technology is conducted and from this a framework is proposed by which to assess the impacts of densified office space. This article concludes with a discussion on the impact that IVE's can have on human perception and how this will help architectural and non-architectural disciplines gain an understanding of 'perceptional space'.

M.A. Schnabel (2014): Special Issue: 47th ASA: Cutting Edge.  Architectural Scence Review, Taylor and Francis, London, United Kingdom, vol.57 (4), 237-239

http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/tasr20/57/4 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00038628.2014.974298

We are facing unprecedented challenges in our natural and human-made, cultural, social and built environments as we can read in the recent issues of ASR. Working at the intersection of human needs, creative innovation, education, critical thinking, computing, science, design and technology, Architectural Science Practitioners and Researchers are uniquely placed to engage with these challenges and frontiers. Architecture is no longer an organization of matter and space, but systems with multi-layered components and increasingly complex relationships. Recognising the importance of rapid Asian urbanisation and the impact it has on global scale, the 47th Inter. Conference of the AS-Association returned after 17 years Asia to Hong Kong in 2013 with the provoking conference theme ‘Cutting Edge’.  

M.A. Schnabel & J. J. Ham (2014): Social Learning Cloud: International Journal of Architectural Computing (IJAC), MultiScience, Essex, UK, vol.12, 3, pp 225- 241

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1260/1478-0771.12.3.225

In less than a decade, Architectural Education has completely changed. The advent of computation has not so much triggered the change, but Social Networks (SN) have ignited a novel way of learning, interaction and knowledge construction. Online SN work in close association with offline SN to form a blended social learning realm that greatly enables and enhances students’ learning in a far more influencing way than any other leaning means, resources or methods did. The research presents a SNLC for architectural education that provides opportunities for linking the academic Learning Management Systems with private or professional SN such that it enhances the learning experience and deepens the knowledge of the students.

Q. Dai and M.A. Schnabel (2014): Thermal comfort levels classified by aspect ratio and orientation for three zones of a street in Rotterdam.  Architectural Science Review, Taylor and Francis, London, United Kingdom, vol.57 (4), 286-294

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/00038628.2014.930016

Thermal comfort and micro climate around buildings become important issues in urban planning affecting everyone’s daily lives. During such heat waves the Mean Radiant Temperature (Tmrt) is found to be tightly connected to the thermal comfort distribution at the micro scale. In this study, we simulate spatial variations of Tmrt, and generate thermal comfort classifications based on the simulated statistical distributions. Our findings contribute to urban planning issues in quantifying the thermal comfort in specific urban environment & allow architects and planners to make informed decisions on the impact upon thermal comfort of their design decisions.

M.A. Schnabel (2013): Architectural Science Realities: How to engage with Architectural Science.  Architectural Science Review, Taylor and Francis, London, United Kingdom, vol.56 (3), 1 pg.

http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tasr20#.UsI5EPQW18E

There is a need for educators, professionals, learners and clients to interact efficiently and effectively. However, this is not always possible due to the different knowledge background or complexity of the matter. Technologies transfer communication, leadership, democratic interaction, teamwork, social engagement and responsibility away from the instructors to the participants. Implementing social network-enabled communication can move design beyond its conventional realm and enables stakeholders to develop architectural knowledge that is embedded into a community of experts with their expertise both online and offline.

M.A. Schnabel & J. J. Ham (2012): Virtual Design Studio within a Social Network: Journal of Information Technology in Construction, ITCON, Ljubljana, Slovenia, vol.17, pp. 397-415.

http://www.itcon.org/cgi-bin/works/Show?2012_27

Online communications, multimedia, mobile computing and face-to-face learning create blended learning environments to which some Virtual Design Studios (VDS) have reacted. Social Networks (SN), as instruments for communication, have provided a potentially fruitful operative base for VDS. The implementation of Social Network VDS (SNVDS) moved the VDS beyond its conventional realm. Problem-based learning (PBL) becomes an iterative and reflexive process facilitating deep learning. The article discusses details of the SNVDS, its pedagogical implications to PBL, and presents how the SNVDS is successful in enabling architectural students to collaborate and communicate design proposals that integrate a variety of skills, deep learning, knowledge and construction with a rich learning experience.

M.A. Schnabel & J. J. Ham (2012): Virtual Design Studio via Social Networks:  Advances in Education Research Journal, Information Engineering Research Institute, Newark, United States of America, vol. 3, pp. 548-554.

http://apps.webofknowledge.com/full_record.do?product=UA&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=2&SID=W29SMbjBP9TVEpNxvWV&page=1&doc=2

With the advent of social networks, it became apparent that the social aspect of designing and learning plays a crucial role in students’ education. The ease of communication, leadership opportunity, democratic interaction, teamwork, and the sense of community are some of the aspects that are now in the centre of design interaction. On the sample of a design studio the article discusses details of the Social Network VDS, its pedagogical implications to PBL, and presents how it is successful in empowering architectural students to collaborate and communicate design proposals that integrate a variety of skills, deep learning, and construction of knowledge. It studies the effectiveness of the generated social intelligence.

M.A. Schnabel & J. J. Ham (2011): Web 2.0 virtual design studio: social networking as facilitator of design education: Architectural Science Review, Taylor and Francis, London, United Kingdom, vol.54, pp 108–11.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00038628.2011.582369#.UsJC5PQW18E

In 2009, Deakin U and CUHK were the first Universities that used Web 2.0 technologies to enhance learning outcomes in a third-year architectural design studio that was modelled on the virtual design studios (VDSs) of the past decades. The studio developed the VDS further by integrating a social learning environment into the blended learning experience. The Web 2.0 VDS utilized social networking applications/sites, various three-dimensional modelling, video and image processing, and chat software to deliver lectures, communicate learning goals, disseminate learning resources, submitting, providing feedback and comments to various design works, and assessing of students’ outcomes. This research centres on issues of learning and teaching associated with the development of a social network VDS.

M.A. Schnabel & A. Tang (2007): Disparallel Spaces: creaciones con diseño paramétrico, Revista Alarife 14, Construcciones Digitales, Universidad Piloto de Colombia, Facultad de Arquitectura y Artes, Columbia, vol.14, November, pp. 27-40.

http://cumincades.scix.net/cgi-bin/works/Show?_id=863e&sort=DEFAULT&search=schnabel%20%2b2007&hits=1

This research presents the first non-standard architectural design education and exhibition displaying creative digital design techniques. It explored how the coupling of architectural design with digital modelling and fabrication methods allows for a deeper comprehension and experience of space and form. The notion of non-conformity was the core of this research, held together by the idea of spatial concepts in disparallel configurations & unconventional methods in the design process.

M.A. Schnabel & J. Karakiewicz (2007): Rethinking Parameters in Urban Design: International Journal of Architectural Computing (IJAC), MultiScience, Essex, UK, vol.5, 1, pp 84-98

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1260/147807707780912994

This research describes the unique coupling of an architectural urban design studio with an in-depth digital media course for the purpose of exploring new avenues of architectural expression, urban form-finding, and communication through the exploration of urban parameters. By merging descriptive parameters of urban situations with digital parametric tools, the understanding of urban design processes was enhanced by the possibility to perceive and comprehend larger problems of spatial urban experiences. The research reviews the implications for design education, as well as for the understanding and communication of complex urban designs that are responsive to a variety of parameters.

M.A. Schnabel, T. Kvan, S. K. S. Kuan & W. Li (2004) 3D Crossover: Exploring Objets digitalisé: International Journal of Architectural Computing (IJAC), MultiScience, Essex, UK, vol.2, 4, pp 475-490

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1260/1478077042906212

By merging a range of digital and physical media, the architectural design process is enriched by different perceptions, comprehensions and conceptions of spatial volumes within both physical and virtual environments. With the interchanging and crossing over of design environments from reality to virtuality the limits of each one are dismantled, both realms can be brought together in an overall process that led to alternative resulting designs. The research lies in the tradition of artists who push media to explore new interpretations of the media themselves and of their artwork.

M.A. Schnabel & T. Kvan (2003) Spatial Understanding in Immersive Virtual Environments: International Journal of Architectural Computing (IJAC), MultiScience, Essex, UK, vol.1, 4, pp 435-448

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1260/147807703773633455

In this study, we examined the perception and understanding of spatial volumes within immersive and non-immersive virtual environments by comparison with representation using conventional media. We examined the relative effectiveness of these conditions in enabling the translation to a tangible representation, through a series of design experiments. The goal of our study is to identify how designers perceive space in Virtual Environments (VEs). By comparison of the same spatial performance task undertaken within a Head Mounted Display, screen-based and real 2D environment, we are able to draw some conclusions about spatial understanding in immersive VE activity.

M.A. Schnabel & T. Kvan (2002) Design, Communication & Collaboration in Immersive Virtual Environments: International Journal of Design Computing,  vol. 4

http://cumincad.scix.net/cgi-bin/works/Show?83ce

Virtual Environments (VE) are increasingly offered as environments for design. Using VE to visualize ideas from the initial steps of design; the architect is challenged to deal with perception of space; solid and void; without translations to and from a two dimensional media. From this new ability; we might expect new forms of design expression. The research presents these novel possiblies that is studied in a novel desgin environment.

Journals:

M.A. SCHNABEL (2013): Parametric Designing in Disparallel Spaces: HKIA Journal, Australia, Issue 67, December, pp. 26-29
http://www.hkia.net/en/Resources/Resources_01_02.htm

This research presents the first non-standard architectural design education and exhibition displaying creative digital design techniques. It explored how the coupling of architectural design with digital modelling and fabrication methods allows for a deeper comprehension and experience of space and form.The notion of non-conformity was the core of this research, held together by the idea of spatial concepts in disparallel configurations and unconventional methods in the process of design.

M.A. SCHNABEL (2012) BIM Education, SIGARAM 2012, Chennai, India: Hindustan University, pp.24-27
http://www.hindustanuniv.ac.in/17th_caardia_2012.html

Building Information Modelling (BIM) is among several technological and cultural developments that are driving architectural education to novel directions. The learning environment of BIM in architectural studios changes how learners and teachers engage with each other as well as with the design communication itself. Hence BIM represents a shift in thinking that calls large segments of contemporary architectural education into question. The consequences of digitally driven processes and thinking on architectural education are profound allowing for novel interactions to arise. Social-intelligence and -engagement that is fostered by social networks feed seamlessly into the learning and knowledge building akin to the working environment of BIM.

M.A. SCHNABEL (2012): Architectural Education in the BIM-Age, Digital Fabrication in China, New Architecture, Huazhong, China
http://aup.hust.edu.cn/newarch/xjz.htm

In the recent years, qualitative developments in the architectural profession are affecting substantively all facets of design education. The way how professional relationships, construction techniques, buildings- materials, design instruments and ways of working are changing is often faster than an educational system can react to. Hereby digital media are often the driving forces that facilitate change in architecture. Digital media are by far no longer basic recording and drawing media but progressive partner in design that allow the power of computational logic to be applied to design. The evolution of contemporary digital architecture facilitated by complex software and mostly online networked communications as well as data mining capabilities of Building Information Modelling (BIM) are among several technological and cultural developments that are driving architectural education to novel directions.

M.A. SCHNABEL (2009) Parametric Design Experience: a+u Architecture and Urbanism, Special Issue, A+U Publishing Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan, vol.08, 152-155
https://www.japlusu.com/shop/product/au-august-2009-special-issue

Architectural design studios are the essential learning experience for architectural students. Their traditions and proceedings are well established. Studios go beyond pure skill training and require reflection upon, and the creation of, knowledge. There can be, however, a gap between skill training and the application of knowledge. This tension is especially true in studios that rely on the use of digital technologies and the learning of complex techniques such as computational architectural design, BIM and their underlying concepts and theories of intelligent systems. Our research has shown that the integration of BIM into design studio curricula can be achieved by employing BIM-instruments from the intial design process onwards and allowing for a novel design thinking and generation.

M.A. SCHNABEL (2008): Stitching the Void: (inside) australian design review, Melbourne, Australia, Issue 50, March, pp. 30-32
http://www.australiandesignreview.com/magazines/inside/37178-inside-issue-79-the-idea-winners

Australia is generally perceived as a horizontal vast stretching linearly into the distance. Since the latest installation by Patrick Keane from Enter Architecture, however, this perception has been broken. Through the work “Stitching the Void” we experience the city in an animated three-dimensional realm. Stitching the Void” has pushed creativity to produce new definitions in both design and its cultural contexts. It is a neoteric approach towards design and form development, which is significant not only within the architectural context of the city, but also in all other dialogues involving spatial representations.

P. KEANE, M.A. SCHNABEL & M. SMITH (2007): Space Explorers, Monument, vol.82, Dec/Jan, pp. 50-57
http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/153854318?q=issn%3A1320-1115&c=article&versionId=167756031

Virtual Architecture is moving from an academic realm into praxis. Virtual Architecture becomes its own entity among architectural design influencing conventional architecture. The article describes on three samples these novel architectural design cultures.

M.A. SCHNABEL & A. TANG (2007) Disparallel Spaces: Parametric Design, Modern Decoration, vol.121, 10, 8 pgs.
http://xdzs.periodicals.net.cn/default.html www.cnmd.net

Disparallel Spaces was an architectural design exhibition showcasing creative digital design techniques. The exhibition explored how the coupling of architectural design with digital modelling and fabrication methods allows for a deeper comprehension and experience of space and form. The participating designers proposed architectural solutions that challenged and defied gravity, dimension, space and volume in unprecedented ways, resulting in novel designs created with freedom of innovation without boundaries. The non-standard design generation is unique in its methodology and novel in architectural designing.

M.A. SCHNABEL (2005) Crossing Spheres: From Virtual to Real - New Dimensions of Architectural Expressions, Modern Decoration, 88, (1); January 2005, 8 pgs.
http://xdzs.periodicals.net.cn/default.htmlwww.cnmd.net

A diversified and open-ended approach of architectural design using different media of representation offers enhanced possibilities to gain new spatial solutions. By merging a range of digital and physical media, the architectural design process is enriched by different perceptions, of spatial volumes within both physical and virtual environments. With this interchanging of design environments from reality to virtuality the limits of each one are dismantled, both realms can be brought together in an overall process that led to alternative form creations.

M.A. SCHNABEL, K. B. TAN & J. TAYSHENG (eds.), International Journal of Architectural Computing, Editors, MultiScience, Essex, UK, vol. 3, 4, 2005
http://multi-scence.metapress.com/content/vt1u1u20238h/?p=f010c527e85a4f27bbab30c5a79d2aaf&pi=31

Research interests in the CAADRIA community are as varied as the different cultures and languages that make up Asia. For this issue, articles selected are grouped into three parts: process, analysis and communication.

Conference Papers:

B. Wang, T. Moleta and M. A. Schnabel (2018): The Virtual Mirror: Cognitive Loads in VR and VR Visualisations. Computing for a Better Tomorrow, 36th Annual Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe (eCAADe2018), Lodz, Poland, Sept 17-21; pgs 10.

J. Rogers and M. A. Schnabel (2018): Digital Design Ecology: An Intricate Framework for the Analysis of Architectural Design. Computing for a Better Tomorrow, 36th Annual Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe (eCAADe2018), Lodz, Poland, Sept 17-21; pgs 10.

H. Rushton, D. Silcock, J. Rogers and M. A. Schnabel (2018): Tangible and Intangible digital heritage: Creating Virtual Environments to Engage Public Interpretation. Computing for a Better Tomorrow, 36th Annual Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe (eCAADe2018), Lodz, Poland, Sept 17-21; pgs 10.

D. Di Mascio, A. Kepczynska-Walczak, N. Webb and M. A. Schnabel (2018): A Critical Evaluation of two Contextualized Digital Heritage Workshops: Descriptions, Reflections and Future Directions Tangible and Intangible digital heritage: Creating Virtual Environments to Engage Public Interpretation. Computing for a Better Tomorrow, 36th Annual Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe (eCAADe2018), Lodz, Poland, Sept 17-21; pgs 10.

C. Qureshi, T. Moleta and M. A. Schnabel (2018): CityAR: Wellington. Computing for a Better Tomorrow, 36th Annual Conference on Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe (eCAADe2018), Lodz, Poland, Sept 17-21; pgs 10.

Y. Zhang and M. A. Schnabel (2018): A Use of Form-Based Code for Volumetric Morphology of High-density Cities, 2nd International Conference on Smart Grid and Smart Cities (ICSGSC 2018), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Aug 12-14, 10 pgs.

H. Rushton, D. Silcock, J. Rogers, M. A. Schnabel (2018): The Tangible and Intangible: Interpreting Modern Architectural Heritage Through Virtual Realities, AMPS: Tangible – Intangible Heritage(s) – An Interplay of Design, Social and Cultural Critiques of the Built Environment, London, 10 pgs.
http://architecturemps.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Hannah-_Rushton_at_al_The-Tangible-and-Intangible-Modern-Heritage-in-VR_abstract-UEL.pdf

T. T. Lo and M. A. Schnabel (2018): Virtual and Augmented Studio Environment (VASE): Developing the Virtual Reality Eco-System for Design Studios, in T. Fukuda, W. Huang, P. Janssen, K. Crolla, S. Alhadidi (eds.), Learning, Adapting and Prototyping, 23rd International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Tsinghua University, Beijing, PRC,Vol 1, pp. 443-452.
http://papers.cumincad.org/cgi-bin/works/paper/caadria2018_050

J. Rogers, M. A. Schnabel and T. T. Lo (2018): Digital Culture: An Interconnective Design Methodology Ecosystem, in T. Fukuda, W. Huang, P. Janssen, K. Crolla, S. Alhadidi (eds.), Learning, Adapting and Prototyping, 23rd International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China,Volume 1, pp. 493-502.
http://papers.cumincad.org/cgi-bin/works/paper/caadria2018_197

S. Chowdhury and M. A. Schnabel (2018): An Algorithmic Methodology to Predict Urban Form, in Learning, Prototyping and Adapting, in T. Fukuda, W. Huang, P. Janssen, K. Crolla, S. Alhadidi (eds.), Learning, Adapting and Prototyping, 23rd International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Tsinghua University, Beijing, China,Volume 2, pp. 401-410.
http://papers.cumincad.org/cgi-bin/works/paper/caadria2018_245

Y. He and M. A. Schnabel (2018): The Logic Behind Lattice Windows in the Lingering Garden: Parametric Generation of Chinese Abstract Indigenous Patterns, in W. Huang, M. Williams, D. Luo, Y. Wu and Y. Lin (eds.), Learning, Prototyping and Adapting, Short Paper Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), pp. 1-6.

H. Rushton, D. Silcock, M. A. Schnabel, T. J. Moleta and S. Aydin (2018): Moving Images in Digital Heritage: Architectural Heritage in Virtual Reality, Moving Images - Static Spaces: Architectures, Art, Media, Film, Digital Art and Design, AMPS (Architecture, Media, Politics, Society), Istanbul, 12-13 April, 2018.
http://architecturemps.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Hannah_Rushton_Moving-Images-in-Digital-Heritage-_Abstract-IKU-1-1-1.pdf

T.T. Lo, M. A. Schnabel, T. Moleta (2018): A Decision-Making Framework for Public Engagement in Urban Housing Development using Digital Gamification, The 11th International Symposium on City Planning and Environmental Management in Asian Countries (AURG), Southeast University, Nanjing, 6pgs.

S. Chowdhury, M. A. Schnabel and Y. Zhang (2017): An Alternative Means to Generate Urban Codes: An Instrument for Urban Design, Disruption, Divergence and Designed Intervention – Making Change Happen, 10th International Urban Design Conference, Association for Sustainability in Business Inc., pp. 4-18.

M. Abid, S. Aydin and M. A. Schnabel (2017): Reclaiming Heritage by Retelling 'The Thing' in Virtual Reality: Decoding Walled City of Lahore, in M. A. Schnabel (ed.), Back to the Future: The Next 50 Years, (51st International Conference of the Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA)), pp. 15–24.
http://anzasca.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/ASA_2017_Abid_Aydin_Schnabel.pdf

Y. Zhang and M. A. Schnabel (2017): A Workflow of Data Integrating and Parametric Modelling in Urban Design Regulation, in M. A. Schnabel (ed.), Back to the Future: The Next 50 Years, (51st International Conference of the Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA)), pp. 139–148.
http://anzasca.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/ASA_2017_Zhang_Schnabel.pdf

S. Chowdhury and M. A. Schnabel (2017): Generating Urban Codes for Neighbourhoods, in M. A. Schnabel (ed.), Back to the Future: The Next 50 Years, (51st International Conference of the Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA)), pp. 159–166.
http://anzasca.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/ASA_2017_Chowdhury_Schnabel.pdf

Y. He and M. A. Schnabel (2017): Outdoor Wind Environment Study of High-rises Residential Buildings in Urban Areas: A Literature Review, in M. A. Schnabel (ed.), Back to the Future: The Next 50 Years, (51st International Conference of the Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA)), pp. 773–782.
http://anzasca.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/ASA_2017_He_Schnabel.pdf

S. Aydin, M. Abid and M. A. Schnabel (2017): Digital Heritage: Case of Conservation of Masjid Wazir Khan, Lahore, in The City: An Evolving Organism, THAAP Conference, pp. 89–98. Contribution 33%

D. Innes, M.A. Schnabel and T. Moleta (2017): Virtual Inhabitation and Creation: A Comparative Study of Interactive 1:1 Modelling as a Design Method. Proceedings of 2017 National Conference on Digital Architecture Technologies in Architectural Education and Digital Architecture Design Association (DADA), International Conference on Digital Architecture, Beijing: China Architecture & Building Press, pp. 402-408
Contribution 40%

Y. He and M.A. Schnabel (2017): Digital Fabrication of Parametrically Generated the Conventional Chinese Wood Architecture Component of Gua Luo. Proceedings of 2017 National Conference on Digital Architecture Technologies in Architectural Education and Digital Architecture Design Association (DADA), International Conference on Digital Architecture, Beijing: China Architecture & Building Press, pgs. 6
Contribution 40%

S. AYDIN and M.A. SCHNABEL (2017): Glitch in the Museum: A Digital Heritage Project Rejecting Authorised Heritage Institutions. Rejecting/Reversing Architecture, LIVENARCH V – 2017, Trabzon, Turkey (September) pgs. 6.

S. AYDIN and M.A. SCHNABEL (2017): A Collective Intelligence Assessment Approach through Alternate Realities in ‘The Museum of Gamers’. Proceedings of the In-Programme Personalisation for Broadcast (IPP4B) Workshop, ACM TVX2017, Hilversum, The Netherlands, June 2017. pgs. 6.

Y. Zhang and M.A. SCHNABEL (2017): Parametric Modelling in Form-Based Urban Design Code for high-density cities. In Michela Turrin Brady Peters William O’Brien Rudi Stouffs Timur Dogan (eds,) 2017 Annual Symposium on Simulation for Architecture and Urban Design (SimAUD), Society for Modeling & Simulation International (SCS), Toronto, Canada, pp. 265-272.
http://scs.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/SimAUD-2017-Proceedings.pdf

M.A. SCHNABEL and Y. HE (2017): Digital Fabrication of Parametrically Generated Māori Carvings, in K. Greenop and C. Landorf (eds.), digital cultural heritage: FUTURE VISIONS, Architecture Theory Criticism History Research Centre, University of Queensland, Brisbane, 10pgs.

T.T. LO. M.A. SCHNABEL, T. MOLETA (2017): Gamification For User-Oriented Housing Design: A theoretical review, in P. Janssen, P. Loh, A. Raonic, M.A. SCHNABEL (eds.), Protocols, Flows and Glitches, Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA) 2017, pp. 63–73.
http://papers.cumincad.org/cgi-bin/works/Show?_id=caadria2017_004

Y. HE, M.A. SCHNABEL, R. CHEN and N. WANG (2017): A Parametric Analysis Process for Daylight Illuminance - The Influence of Perforated Facade Panels on the Indoor Illuminance, in P. Janssen, P. Loh, A. Raonic, M.A. SCHNABEL (eds.), Protocols, Flows and Glitches, Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA) 2017, pp. 417-424.
http://papers.cumincad.org/cgi-bin/works/Show?_id=caadria2017_001

B. HASLOP, M.A. SCHNABEL and S. AYDIN (2017): Glitch Space - Experiments on Digital Decay to Remap the Anatomy of Glitch in 3D, in P. Janssen, P. Loh, A. Raonic, M.A. SCHNABEL (eds.), Protocols, Flows and Glitches, Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA) 2017, pp. 591-601.
http://papers.cumincad.org/cgi-bin/works/Show?_id=caadria2017_040

Y. HE and M.A. SCHNABEL (2016): Daylight illuminance calculation model and process for Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) Systems, in J. Zuo, L. Daniel, V. Soebarto (eds.), Fifty Years Later: Revisiting the Role of Architectural Science in Design and Practice: 50th International Conference of the Architectural Science Association 2016, pp. 389–396.
http://anzasca.net/category/conference-papers/2016-conference-papers/?authorid=752

A. BALLANTYNE, D. KAWITI and M.A. SCHNABEL (2016): Urban Papakainga: Programming Cultural Criteria, by using Multi-Agent Systems, in J. Zuo, L. Daniel, V. Soebarto (eds.), Fifty Years Later: Revisiting the Role of Architectural Science in Design and Practice: 50th International Conference of the Architectural Science Association 2016, pp. 79–88.
http://anzasca.net/category/conference-papers/2016-conference-papers/?authorid=752

S. WHITBURN, P. ALLAN, S. KEBBELL, M.A. SCHNABEL (2016): Interdisciplinary Authentic Learning: Adaptive Collaboration in Design Studios, ICERI2016 Proceedings, Seville, Spain, pp. 5219-5226.

C. VAN VELTHOOVEN and M.A. SCHNABEL (2016): Interdisciplinary Design Approach through Maya. 11th International Symposium on Architectural Interchanges in Asia (ISAIA), Architectural Institute of Japan, Sendai, pp. 86-89.

Y. ZHANG and M.A. SCHNABEL (2016): Mapping Volumetric Urban Space: A Critical Development Analysis of Multi- level Morphology of High-dense Cities. 11th International Symposium on Architectural Interchanges in Asia (ISAIA), Architectural Institute of Japan, Sendai, pp. 1785-1790.

Y. HE and M.A. SCHNABEL (2016): A CFD Analysis of Wall-Effect Building Groups in a Curved Layout: A Study in Sha Tin, Hong Kong. 11th International Symposium on Architectural Interchanges in Asia (ISAIA), Architectural Institute of Japan, Sendai, pp. 1771-1776.

M.A. SCHNABEL, Y. ZHANG, and S. AYDIN (2016): Using parametric modelling in Form-Based Code design for high-dense cities, International High-Performance Built Environment Conference – A Sustainable Built Environment Conference 2016 Series (SBE16), iHBE 2016, 9 pgs.

J.J. HAM, M.A. SCHNABEL, L. HARVEY, D. PROHASKY (2016) 'Starting with Nothing' and 'Ending up with Something': Musical Improvisation and Parametric Spatial Design Improvisation, in H-L. Hentilä, A. Herneoja, H. Pihlajaniemi and T. Österlund (eds.), Complexity & Simplicity, - 34th eCAADe Conference, Oulu, Finland, pp. 377-386.
http://papers.cumincad.org/cgi-bin/works/Search?search=schnabel+%2B2016

T. T. Lo, M.A. SCHNABEL, T. MOLETA (2016) A Simple System for a Complex Mass Housing Design Collaboration: A system development framework, in H-L. Hentilä, A. Herneoja, H. Pihlajaniemi and T. Österlund (eds.), Complexity & Simplicity, - The 34th eCAADe Conference, Oulu, Finland, pp. Vol. 2, 137-146.
http://papers.cumincad.org/cgi-bin/works/Search?search=schnabel+%2B2016

T.T. LO and M.A. SCHNABEL (2016) Multi User Online Design Environment for Mass Housing - A collaborative decision-support tool, in H-L. Hentilä, A. Herneoja, H. Pihlajaniemi and T. Österlund (eds.), Complexity & Simplicity, - The 34th eCAADe Conference, Oulu, Finland, Vol 1, pp. 77-80.
http://papers.cumincad.org/cgi-bin/works/Search?search=schnabel+%2B2016

T.T. LO, M.A. SCHNABEL and T. MOLETA (2016) Establish, exchange and engage: A support system for multiple decisions to co-produce, in H. Timmermans (ed), 13th International Conference on Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 10 pgs.
http://2016.ddss.nl/proceedingsDDSS.pdf

T.T. LO, M.A. SCHNABEL and T. MOLETA (2016): Gamified Participation for Mass Housing Design. iiSBE Forum of Young Researchers in Sustainable Building 2016 Building Design and Operation, Prague, Czech Republic; pp. 213-222.

Y. ZHANG and M.A. SCHNABEL (2016) Form-based Code (FBC) Modelling for Urban Design of High-dense Cities, in R. Attar, A. Chronis, S. Hanna, M. Turrin (eds.), 2016 Symposium on Simulation for Architecture and Urban Design (SimAUD), Society for Modeling & Simulation International (SCS), London, UK, pp. 147-152
http://simaud.org/proceedings/download.php?f=SimAUD2016_Proceedings.pdf

S. AYDIN, M.A. SCHNABEL and T. MOLETA (2016) Transcoding of Game Design into Museology: An Object-Oriented Perspective, in M. S. Uddin, M Sahin, A. Ö. Torun, Ü. C. Bayazitoglu (eds.), Inclusiveness in Design, 2016 Design Communication Associations (DCA) European Conference, Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 422-431

T. T. Lo, M.A. SCHNABEL and S. AYDIN (2016) Modrule: A Gamified Design Communication Platform, in M. S. Uddin, M Sahin, A. Ö. Torun, Ü. C. Bayazitoglu (eds.), Inclusiveness in Design, 2016 Design Communication Associations (DCA) European Conference, Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 339-347

M.A. SCHNABEL, S. AYDIN, T. MOLETA, D. PIERINI and T. DORTA (2016), Unmediated Cultural Heritage via HYVE-3D: Compiling individual and collective narratives with 3D sketching, in S. Chien, S. Choo, M.A. SCHNABEL, W. Nakapan, M. J. Kim, S. Roudavski (eds.), Living Systems and Micro-Utopias: Towards Continuous Designing, Proceedings of the 21st International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia CAADRIA 2016, pp. 683–692.
http://papers.cumincad.org/cgi-bin/works/Search?search=schnabel+%2B2016

D. KAWITI, M.A. SCHNABEL and J. DURCAN (2016), Indigenous Parametricism – Material Computation: The implementation of a collaborative indigenous domain based research lab, in S. Chien, S. Choo, M.A. SCHNABEL, W. Nakapan, M. J. Kim, S. Roudavski (eds.), Living Systems and Micro-Utopias: Towards Continuous Designing, 21st Intern. Conf. of the Association for CAADRIA 2016, pp. 63-72.
http://papers.cumincad.org/cgi-bin/works/Show?_id=caadria2016_063

Y. ZHANG and M.A. SCHNABEL (2016), Form-Based Code in Parametric Modelling for Continuous Urban Design, in S. Chien, S. Choo, M.A. SCHNABEL, W. Nakapan, M. J. Kim, S. Roudavski (eds.), Living Systems and Micro-Utopias: Towards Continuous Designing, Proceedings of the 21st International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia CAADRIA 2016, pp. 33–42.
http://papers.cumincad.org/cgi-bin/works/Show?_id=caadria2016_033

M.A. SCHNABEL (2015), Digital Design Realities and Futures: Educating Architectural Scientists in Rajapaksha U, et al (eds.) 8th International Conference of Faculty of Architecture Research Unit (FARU), University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka, pp. 11-14.

K. PERERA., M.A. SCHNABEL, M. DONN, H. MADDEWITHANA (2015), Addressing human thermal adaptation in outdoor comfort research – a literature review, in Rajapaksha U, et al (eds.) Proceedings of the 8thInternational Conference of Faculty of Architecture Research Unit (FARU), University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka, pp. 477-490

M. PENPISUTH WALLACE and M.A. SCHNABEL (2015), Biomorphic Transportation Frameworks for Cities of the Future, Project Information for Interaction, XIX Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics (SIGraDi), Florianópolis, Brazil, pgs 5. http://papers.cumincad.org/cgi-bin/works/Show?_id=sigradi2015_11%2e8

Minh NGUYEN-NGOC, M.A. SCHNABEL, Diane Brand and Jules Moloney (2015), Use and Spatial Patterns of newly developed Public Squares in Urban Villages in Shenzhen, in Beau B. Beza and David Jones (eds.) Empowering Change: Transformative Innovations and Projects, 8th International Urban Design Conference, Association for Sustainability in Business, Brisbane, 195-218.
http://urbandesignaustralia.com.au/archives/2015/boppr15.pdf

M.A. SCHNABEL and S. AYDIN (2015), Amphiboly of Digital Heritage, in Gabriele Guidi, Roberto Scopigno, Juan Carlos Torres, Holger Graf (eds.) 2nd International Congress on Digital Heritage 2015, VSMM, EUROGRAPHICS, CIPA ICOMOS/ISPRS, IEEE, Vol 2 pp. 129-132

S. AYDIN and M.A. SCHNABEL (2015), Decoding Kashgar, in Gabriele Guidi, Roberto Scopigno, Juan Carlos Torres, Holger Graf (eds.) 2nd International Congress on Digital Heritage 2015, VSMM, EUROGRAPHICS, CIPA ICOMOS/ISPRS, IEEE, Vol 2 pp. 412-413

T.T. LO, Y. GAO and M.A. SCHNABEL (2015). " Digital Factory for the People: The Application of BIM". Paper presented in Digital Factory: International Conference on Digital Architecture, organized by Digital Architecture Design Association (DADA), Architect Association of Architectural Society of China, pgs. 10 Shanghai, China. http://www.d-a-d-a.org.cn/en/

S. AYDIN and M.A. SCHNABEL (2015), Fusing Conflicts within Digital Heritage through the Ambivalence of Gaming: Research through Design for a Digital Heritage Project, in Y. Ikeda, C. M. Herr, D. Holzer, S. Kaijima, M. J. Kim. M, A, SCHNABEL (eds.), Emerging Experience in Past, Present and Future of Digital Architecture, Proceedings of the 20th International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia CAADRIA 2015, pp. 839-848.
http://papers.cumincad.org/cgi-bin/works/Show?_id=caadria2015_126

S. AYDIN and M.A. SCHNABEL (2014) Augmenting Kashgar, 20th International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia, VSMM 2014. Hong Kong, 4 pgs
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269407407_Augmenting_Kashgar

M.A. SCHNABEL, T.T. LO and S. AYDIN (2014): Gamification and Rule Based Design Strategies in Architecture Education, ACTION! – Doing Design Education, DesignEd Asia Conference Proceedings, eds. by Tim Jachna, Elizabeth McLafferty and Sylvia Tzvetanova Yung, DesignEd Asia, Hong Kong, pp. 150-160.
http://www.designedasia.com/Full_Papers/2014/13_Gamification%20and%20rule%20based%20design.pdf

T.T. LO, M.A. SCHNABEL, S. AYDIN and Kaixia Shi (2014) : ModRule: Using Gamification for Collaborative Mass-Housing Design Process, ACROSS: Architectural Research through to Practice, The 48th International Conference of the Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA), eds. by F Madeo & MA SCHNABEL. Genoa, pp. 733–743.
http://anzasca.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/15_58_197.pdf

S. AYDIN, T.T. LO and M.A. SCHNABEL (2014): Gamification of Shape Grammars - Collaborative and Participatory Mass-Housing Design for Kashgar Old Town, Fusion - The 32nd eCAADe Conference, eds. by Emine Mine Thompson, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, Vol. 1, pp. 603-612.
http://cumincad.scix.net/cgi-bin/works/Show?ecaade2014_072

T.T. LO, S. AYDIN and M.A. SCHNABEL (2014): Collaborative Design with Quasi-Grammars, Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2014), eds. by N. Gu, S. Watanabe, H. Erhan, M. Hank Haeusler, W. Huang, R. Sosa, Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Hong Kong, pp. 941–942.
http://cumincad.scix.net/cgi-bin/works/Search?search=schnabel

S. AYDIN and M.A. SCHNABEL (2014): A Survey on the Visual Communication Skills of BIM Tools , in N. Gu, S. Watanabe, H. Erhan, M. Hank Haeusler, W. Huang, R. Sosa (eds.) Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2014), Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Hong Kong, pp. 337–346

J.J. HAM and M.A. SCHNABEL (2014): Comparisons in Representational Media Use in Design Studios between Hong Kong and Australia, in N. Gu, S. Watanabe, H. Erhan, M. Hank Haeusler, W. Huang, R. Sosa (eds.) Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2014), Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Hong Kong, pp. 781–790. Hong Kong
http://cumincad.scix.net/cgi-bin/works/Search?search=schnabel

J J. HAM, M. LUTHER and M.A. SCHNABEL (2013): Building Systems Integration, Design Studios and a Social Learning Cloud. Cutting Edge: 47th International Conference of the Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA) ed. by M.A. SCHNABEL. pp.71-80. Sydney, Australia
http://anzasca.net/2013-conference-papers/

M.A. SCHNABEL l and T.T. LO (2013): Interactive Environmental Performance Analysis within Virtual Environments. Cutting Edge: 47th International Conference of the Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA) ed. By M.A. SCHNABEL. Sydney, Australia: The Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA), pp. 555-564. http://anzasca.net/2013-conference-papers/

T.T. LO; M.A. SCHNABEL and Y. Gao (2013): Definition of Smart Parametric Model for Collaborative Design of Mass Housing, Cutting Edge, 47th International Conference of the Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA), Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA), Sydney, Australia, pp.207-216.
http://anzasca.net/2013-conference-papers/

S. AYDIN and M.A. SCHNABEL (2013). "Coding Shape Grammars: Hints for generating a parametric design tool for large-scale urban renewal projects". Paper presented in the Cutting Edge: 47th International Conference of the Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA), organized by Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA), pp.177-186. Sydney, Australia
http://anzasca.net/2013-conference-papers/

R. THILAKARATNE and M.A. SCHNABEL l (2013). "Will LEED Survive In Asia?". Paper presented in the Cutting Edge: 47th International Conference of the Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA), organized by Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA), pp.385-394. Sydney, Australia
http://anzasca.net/2013-conference-papers/

Q. DAI and M.A. SCHNABEL (2013). "Relationship between Mean Radiant Temperature and Solar Angle for Pedestrians". Paper presented in the Cutting Edge: 47th International Conference of the Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA), organized by Architectural Science Association (ANZAScA), pp.251-260.
http://anzasca.net/2013-conference-papers/

T.T. LO and M.A. SCHNABEL (2013). "Multi-Criteria Design Optimization using IFC language with Performance Analysis". Paper presented in the DADA2013 Digital Infiltration & Parametricism: International Conference on Digital Architecture, organized by Digital Architecture Design Association (DADA), Architect Association of Architectural Society of China, pp.208-219. Beijing, China
http://www.d-a-d-a.org.cn/en/

T.T. LO, M.A. SCHNABEL and Yan Gao (2013): Collaborative Mass Housing Design Practice with Smart Models, DADA2013 Digital Infiltration & Parametricism, International Conference on Digital Architecture, Digital Architecture Design Association (DADA) and Architect Association of Architectural Society of China, Beijing, China, pp.439-448.
http://www.d-a-d-a.org.cn/en/

M.A. SCHNABEL and T.T. LO (2013). "Application of Interactive Environmental Performance Analysis in a Virtual Environment". Paper presented in the DADA2013 Digital Infiltration & Parametricism: International Conference on Digital Architecture, organized by Digital Architecture Design Association (DADA), Architect Association of Architectural Society of China, pp.177-186. Beijing, China
http://www.d-a-d-a.org.cn/en/

M.A. SCHNABEL and J.J. HAM (2013): A Framework For Social Networked Architectural Education, , in R. Stouffs, P. H. T. Janssen, S. Roudavski, B. Tunçer (eds.), Open Systems: 18th Intern. Conference of the Association of Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia CAADRIA 2013,, Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Singapore, 15-18 May, pp. 313-322
http://cumincad.scix.net/cgi-bin/works/Search?search=schnabel

Q. DAI and M.A. SCHNABEL (2013): Pedestrian Thermal Comfort in Relation to Street Pedestrian Zones With Different Orientations, in R. Stouffs, P. H. T. Janssen, S. Roudavski, B. Tunçer (eds.), Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference of the Association of Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia CAADRIA 2013,, Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Singapore, 15-18 May, pp. 219-228
http://cumincad.scix.net/cgi-bin/works/Search?search=schnabel

M.A. SCHNABEL, T.T. LO & Y. QU (2013): Manga Architecture: Developing Architectural Narratives, in R. Stouffs, P. H. T. Janssen, S. Roudavski, B. Tunçer (eds.), Open Systems: 18th Intern. Conference of the Association of CAADRIA,, Association for CAADRIA, Singapore, 15-18 May, pp. 771-780
http://cumincad.scix.net/cgi-bin/works/Search?search=schnabel

Q. DAI, M.A. SCHNABEL and B. HEUSINKVELD (2012): Influence of height-to-width ratio: Case study on mean radiant temperature for Netherlands buildings. Building on Knowledge: Theory and Practice, 46th Annual Conference of the Architectural Science Association, ASA, Gold Coast, Australia, 8 pgs.
http://anzasca.net/2012-conference-papers/

M.A. SCHNABEL (2012): Urban Design Patterns: Parametric Thinking & Making on Architecture and Urbanism International Conference, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan, 10 pgs.
http://arch.thu.edu.tw/thu_arch/patmau/

M.A. SCHNABEL, T.T. LO & Y. QU (2012): Digital manga virtual environment: Bi-tonal architectural narratives. 15th Asian Congress of Architects, Architects Regional Council Asia (ARCASIA) Nusa Dua, Indonesia, 10 pgs.
http://cumincad.scix.net/cgi-bin/works/Search?search=schnabel

J.J. HAM, M.A. SCHNABEL and S. DATTA (2012): Developing Online Construction Technology Resources in Tectonic Design Education: Digital Physicality - Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference, H. Achten, J. Pavlicek, J. Hulin, D. Matejdan (eds), Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic, pp. 135-142.
http://cumincad.scix.net/cgi-bin/works/Search?search=schnabel

M.A. SCHNABEL & Y. QU (2012): Digital Manga Virtual Environment, in T. Fischer, K. De Biswas, J.J. Ham, R. Naka, W.X. Huang, Beyond Codes and Pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Chennai, India, 25-28 April 2012, pp. 619-628.
http://cumincad.scix.net/cgi-bin/works/Search?search=schnabel

J. HAM & M.A. SCHNABEL (2012): How Social is the Virtual Design Studio? A case study of a third year design studio, in T. Fischer, K. De Biswas, J.J. Ham, R. Naka, W.X. Huang, Beyond Codes and Pixels: 17th Intern. Conference on CAADRIA, Association for CAADRIA, Chennai, India, 25-28 April, pp. 173-182.
http://cumincad.scix.net/cgi-bin/works/Search?search=schnabel

Q. DAI, J. WANG, M. LUO & M.A. SCHNABEL (2011): Hourly PM2.5 Extremes Variation in Conjunction With Meteorology in Urban Hong Kong: The 32nd Asian Conference on Remote Sensing (ACRC), Center for Space and Remote Sensing Research, National Central University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, 6 pgs.
http://www.proceedings.com/14023.html

M.A. SCHNABEL & Y. QU (2011): Digital Manga Depiction in C. M. Herr, N. Gu, S. Roudavski, M.A. Schnabel, Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAADRIA), Newcastle, Australia, 27-29 April 2011, pp. 741-750
http://cumincad.scix.net/cgi-bin/works/Search?search=schnabel

M.A. SCHNABEL & J.J. HAM (2011): The Social Network Virtual Design Studio: Integrated design learning using blended learning environments: in C. M. Herr, N. Gu, S. Roudavski, M.A. Schnabel, Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on CAADRIA, Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAADRIA), Newcastle, Australia, 27-29 April 2011, pp. 589-598
http://cumincad.scix.net/cgi-bin/works/Search?search=schnabel

J. HAM & M.A. SCHNABEL (2010): Web 2.0 VDS: Social networking as facilitator of design education: On the edge: cross-disciplinary & intra-disciplinary connections in architectural science, 44nd Annual Conference of the Australian and New Zealand Architectural Science Association, ANZAScA, Auckland, New Zealand, 24-28 November 2010, pp. 93-98
http://anzasca.net/2010-conference-papers/

Y. QU, M.A. SCHNABEL, T. T. Wong & P.A. Heng (2010): Level-of-Detail: A Line Abstraction International Workshop on Image Analysis (IWIA 2010), Nimes, France, 24-27 August 2010, pgs 10
http://www.pressesdesmines.com/media/extrait/IWIA_Extr.pdf

M.A. SCHNABEL & E.L.C. HOWE (2010): The interprofessional virtual design studio: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Hong Kong, April 7-10, 2010, pp. 119-128598
http://cumincad.scix.net/cgi-bin/works/Search?search=schnabel

I. R. CHEN & M.A. SCHNABEL (2009): Retrieving Lost Space With Tangible Augmented Reality: Between Man and Machine - Integration, Intuition, Intelligence, Proceedings of the 14th Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Yunlin (Taiwan), 22-25 April 2009, pp. 135-142598
http://cumincad.scix.net/cgi-bin/works/Search?search=schnabel

E.L.C. HOWE & M.A. SCHNABEL (2009): Teaching design skills for professional and community engagement in Dentistry: International Association for Dental Research (IADR), 87th General Session and Exhibition, Miami, Fla, April 1-4
http://www.iadr.com/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3897#.UsJPIvQW18E

M.A. SCHNABEL & E.L.C. HOWE (2008): Action-based interprofessional learning and teaching: communication and consultancy skills for architecture: Innovation, Inspiration and Instruction: New Knowledge in the Architectural Sciences, 42nd Annual Conference of the Australian and New Zealand Architectural Science Association, ANZAScA 2008, Newcastle, Australia, 26-28 November 2008, pp. 93-9
http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/35138009?selectedversion=NBD43780718

M.A. SCHNABEL (2008): Parametric Design in Urban Design, Proceedings of 2008 International Conference on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering, ICCCBE-XII & INCITE, Beijing, China, 16-18 Oct 2008, 10 pgs.

M.A. SCHNABEL & E.L.C. HOWE (2008) Action-based interprofessional learning and teaching, The Oxford Conference 2008: 50 Years on - Resetting the Agenda of Architectural Education , Oxford, UK, 22-23 July 2008

M. PAULINI & M.A. SCHNABEL (2008): Surfing the City: Towards Context-Aware Mobile Exploration: Beyond Computer-Aided Design, 13th Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Chiang Mai, Thailand, 9-12 April 2008, 10 pgs

M.A. SCHNABEL; W. WANG,; H. SEICHTER & T. KVAN (2008): Touching the Untouchables: Virtual-, Augmented- and Reality: Beyond Computer-Aided Design, 13th Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Chiang Mai, Thailand, 9-12 April 2008, pp. 293-299.

P. CHRISTENSEN & M.A. SCHNABEL (2008): Spatial Polyphony: Virtual Architecture Generated from the Music of J. S. Bach: Beyond Computer-Aided Design, 13th Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Chiang Mai, Thailand, 9-12 April 2008, pp. 501-509.

M.A. SCHNABEL (2008): Disparallel Spaces: Parametric Design Experience: Beyond Computer-Aided Design, 13th Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Chiang Mai, Thailand, 9-12 April 2008, 10 pgs.

M. PAULINI & M.A. SCHNABEL (2007): Surfing the city: An architecture for context-aware urban exploration: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Advances in Mobile Computing and Multimedia, Jakarta, Indonesia, December 3-5, pp. 31-40

M.A. SCHNABEL, W. WANG, H. SEICHTER, & T. KVAN (2007): From Virtuality to Reality and Back: International Association of Societies of Design Research 2007 (IASDR), Hong Kong, November 12-15, 15 pgs.

M.A. SCHNABEL (2007): Rethinking Urban Parameters: Digitization and Globalization, 12th Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), Nanjing, China, 19-22 April 2007, pp. 625-632

K. NG, M.A. SCHNABEL & T. KVAN (2006): Architectural Animation becomes Alive, Creating Spatial Narrative with Spatial Characters for Animations, Communicating Space(s), 24th eCAADe Conference, eCAADe, Volos, Greece, pp. 598-603.

M.A. SCHNABEL (2006): Architectural Parametric Designing: Communicating Space(s), 24th eCAADe Conference, eCAADe, Volos, Greece, pp. 216-221.

H. SEICHTER & M.A. SCHNABEL (2005): Digital and Tangible Sensation: An Augmented Reality Urban Design Studio: Tenth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), New Delhi, India, 28-30 April 2005, vol. 2, pp. 193-202

M.A. SCHNABEL & T. KVAN (2004), 3D Crossover: From Digital Modelling to Rapid Prototyping, 3D Scanning and Physical Depiction: Architecture in the Network Society, 22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings; Copenhagen (Denmark); 15-18 September 2004, pp. 204-311

M.A. SCHNABEL, S. K. S. KUAN & W. LI (2004): 3D Transformations - 3D Scanning, Digital Modelling, Rapid Prototyping and Physical Depiction: Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), eds. by H S Lee & J W Choi, Seoul, Korea, 28-30 April, pp. 227-238.

M.A. SCHNABEL (2003) 3D Maze: Creation and Translation of Abstract Virtual Architectural Environments: The "Second Wave" of ICT in Education: from facilitating teaching and learning to engendering education reform, the International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE) eds. by K T Lee and K Mitchell, Hong Kong, 2-5 December 2003, pp. 1201-1209

M.A. SCHNABEL (2003): Creation and Translation: Virtual 3D Architectural Environments: Proceedings 8th CAADRIA Conference, eds. by Choutgrajank, Charoensilp, Keatruangkamala & Nakapan, Rangsit University, Thailand, 18-20 October, 2003, pp.371-383

M.A. SCHNABEL (2002): Collaborative Studio in a Virtual Environment: Learning communities on the Internet - Pedagogy in implementation, Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education (ICCE), eds. by Kinshuk, Lewis, Akahori, Kemp, Okamoto, Henderson & Lee, Auckland, New Zealand, 3-6 Dec, pp. 337-341

M.A. SCHNABEL & T. KVAN (2002): Immersive 3D architectural worlds: How to get in and out again: Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation, 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, eds. by K Kosszewski & S Wrona, Warsaw, Poland, 18-21 September 2002, pp. 604-608

M.A. SCHNABEL (2002): Motivation and Stimuli; Round Table Session on "Theoretical and Experimental Issues in the Preliminary Stages of Learning/ Teaching CAAD": Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation, 20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, eds. by K Kosszewski & S Wrona, Warsaw, Poland, 18-21 Sep., pp. 209-210

M.A. SCHNABEL & T. KVAN (2002): Interaction in virtual building space: Distributing Knowledge in Building, CIB W78 Conference Proceedings 2002, eds. by K Agger, P Christiansson & R Howard, Aarhus, Denmark, 12-14 June, vol 2, pp. 91-98

M.A. SCHNABEL & T. KVAN (2001): Implementing The First Virtual Environment Design Studio: Architectural Education for the Asian Century, 1st ACAE (ARCASIA Council for Architectural Education) Conference Proceedings, ed. by M Tan, Singapore, 7 September 2001, pp. 157-166

M.A. SCHNABEL & T. KVAN (2001): 3D Maze: Getting Lost in Virtual Reality: 5th Iberoamerican congress of digital graphic SIGRADI 2001, Conference Proceedings, ed. by G Dumont, Conception, Chile, 21-23 November 2001,pp. 145-147

M.A. SCHNABEL & T. KVAN, Thomas (2001): The First Virtual Environment Design Studio: Architectural Information Management, 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, ed. by H. Penttilä, Helsinki, Finland, 29-31 August 2001, pp. 394-400

M.A. SCHNABEL & T. KVAN, (2001): Design communication in immersive virtual environments: an initial exploration: Architectural Information Management, 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, ed. by Hannu Penttilä, Helsinki, Finland, 29-31 August 200, pp. 472-478

Other Publications:

T.T. LO and M.A. SCHNABEL (2015) "Modular Rule: Collaborative Mass Housing”, in Daniel K Brown, Manfredo Manfredini, Peter McPherson, Annabel Pretty, Uwe Rieger and Mark Southcombe (eds.) Applied Collaborations, Proceedings of 8th International Conference and Exhibition of the Association of Architecture Schools of Australasia, pg 47
http://aasa.butterpaper.com/AASA-2015-proceedings.pdf

M.A. SCHNABEL, T.T. LO and S. AYDIN (2014) "Modrule: An Architectural Design Learning Platform." In Teaching and Learning Innovation Expo 2014. Information Technology Services Centre (ITSC) and Centre for Learning Enhancement And Research (CLEAR), CUHK, 15 December, Hong Kong
http://www.cuhk.edu.hk/eLearning/expo2014/poster.html

M.A. SCHNABEL, S. AYDIN and T.T. LO. "Bim-Gamification." In BIM Year 2014: BIM Academic Papers Presentation. Construction Industry Council, Vocational Training Council, HKIBIM, Zero Carbon Building, 2014

M.A. SCHNABEL, & T.T. LO (2013): Collaborative Mass housing Design Studio, Teaching and Learning Innovation Expo 2013, Information Technology Services Centre & Centre for Learning Enhancement and Research, CUHK, Hong Kong, 5 Dec.
http://www5.cuhk.edu.hk/elearning/expo2013/

M.A. SCHNABEL (2013). "Social BIM". Autodesk BIM Awards p.65. Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR: Autodesk
http://www.autodesk.com.hk/adsk/servlet/item?siteID=1170102&id=22105484

M.A. SCHNABEL (2012). "Urban Design Patterns". Paper presented in the Parametric Thinking & Making on Architecture and Urbanism International Conference, organized by Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan, 10 pgs. Taichung, Taiwan
http://arch.thu.edu.tw/thu_arch/patmau/

M.A. SCHNABEL, T.T. LO & Y. Qu (2012): Architectural Narrative with Digital Manga, Teaching and Learning Innovation Expo 2012, Information Technology Services Centre & Centre for Learning Enhancement & Research, CUHK, Hong Kong, 13 Dec.
http://www5.cuhk.edu.hk/elearning/expo2012/

M.A. SCHNABEL & J.J. HAM (2011): The Social Network Virtual Design Studio, Teaching and Learning Innovation Expo 2011, Centre for Learning Enhancement and Research, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, November 11, 2011
http://www5.cuhk.edu.hk/elearning/expo2011/

M. C. HERR, N. GU, S. ROUDAVSKI & M.A. SCHNABEL (2011): Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: Circuit Bending, Breaking and Mending: 16th Intern. Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, CAADRIA, Newcastle, Australia, pp. 1-
http://cumincad.scix.net/cgi-bin/works/Search?search=schnabel

M.A. SCHNABEL & E.L.C. HOWE (2010): Working together: A reflection on collaborative interprofessional teaching & learning, Teaching & Learning Expo 2010, Centre for Learning Enhancement and Research, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Oct 22, 2010, p.14
http://www.cuhk.edu.hk/eLearning/expo2010/

M.A. SCHNABEL (2010): BIM as Design Experience: Autodesk BIM Awards Hong Kong, p.55 http://aiab.org/events/2010/116.aspx

M.A. SCHNABEL (2010): Digital Media in Cultural Heritage - A Book Review, Architectural Science Review, Sydney, Australia, Earthscan, vol. 53.2, pp. 277-278
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3763/asre.2010.0012#.UsJQ_PQW18E

E.L.C. HOWE, M.A. SCHNABEL & A.L. LOPEZ (2010): Dentistry and Design: an Interprofessional Online Learning Program in Oral Health Promotion: International Congress of Applied Psychology 2010 (ICAP 2010), Melbourne, Jul 11-16, 2010
http://www.psychology.org.au/publications/inpsych/2010/august/icap/#s1

M.A. SCHNABEL & E.L.C. HOWE (2009) Interprofessional Learning: Consultancy Skills in a Blended Virtual Learning Environment: Teaching & Learning Expo 2009, Centre for Learning Enhancement and Research, CUHK, Hong Kong, Oct 23, 2009
http://www.cuhk.edu.hk/eLearning/expo2009/

M.A. SCHNABEL (2009): From Drafting to Digital Media - A Book Review, Architectural Science Review, Sydney, Australia: Earthscan, Volume 52.2, pp. 164-165
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3763/asre.2009.0034#.UsJRJPQW18E

E.L.C. HOWE & M.A. SCHNABEL (2008): Dentistry and Design: interprofessional learning in consultancy and visual media: 48th National Conference, International Association for Dental Research (IADR), Australia and New Zealand Division, Perth, 1-3 October 2008

M.A. SCHNABEL (2008): Parametric Design in Architectural Education, Geometry and Architecture AASA Symposium, Australian National University (ANU), Canberra, 29 September 2008

E.L.C. HOWE; EVANS, R. W. and M.A. SCHNABEL (2008) Interprofessional teaching of communication skills for oral health promotion, International Association for Dental Research (IADR), 86th General Session & Exhibition, Toronto, Canada, 2-5 July

M.A. SCHNABEL (2006): Creation and Translation of Virtual Architectural Environments, Paper presented at arTT (architectural research Think Tank), Centre for Advanced Studies in Architecture, National University of Singapore, 20-22 Jan.

M.A. SCHNABEL & E. KRUIJFF (2000): The influence of virtual environments on the design of (digital) architectural expressions; Joint Research Project under the Funding of RGC & DAAD in co-operation with Bauhaus University Weimar, Germany

Software Development:

ModRule (2013-2016). M.A. SCHNABEL, Lo, T. T., SHI, L., & XU, A. Hong Kong, Wellington: DARA. http://www.modrule.com

FUZOR (2013-2016), Kalloc Studio. M.A. SCHNABEL (Developer Team Member), Carlsbad, CA, Hong Kong, China, Wellington, New Zealand

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