School of Marketing and International Business


About the SMIB Kōrero - Research & Discussion Series

The Korero series provides an casual forum for school staff, postgraduate students and guests to discuss their research. The School hosts a number of these seminars throughout the year. You can read about our recent seminars on the Events Page, or browse through some of the topics below.

Negotiating the micro-meso-macro levels of social marketing to build community resilience

Presenter: Kate Daellenbach

While social marketing in the past has been focused on individual behaviour change using commercial marketing techniques, this study focuses on a downstream (micro-level) perspective, which Wymer (2011) argues may be restricting our thinking. Greater attention to upstream (macro) and mid-stream (meso) social marketing directs our attention to governments, and policy makers, to actions of lobbying and advocacy, to actions oriented to organisations and groups (Brennan et al., 2014). More specifically this study examines the Wellington Region Emergency Management Office’s initiative designed to create change at the local community (meso) level, facilitating plans, networks and relationships thus contributing to more resilient communities able to better face and recover from emergencies. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed to examine two community planning processes. Five emergency management office staff and 15 individual community leaders were interviewed. The findings highlight the fluid movement necessary between the meso-level initiative and individual behaviour change. Individual community leaders were initially motivated to be involved due to their role, sense of altruism and curiosity. Their motivation to continue was encouraged as misconceptions around emergency response were cleared, and the value of community connections was highlighted. As planning progressed, greater involvement and empowerment resulted. This work was carried out during the summer scholarship 2014/15 round with a student, Ciahn Dalgliesh-Waugh, and Karen Smith (A/P Tourism).

The social effect of emotions during cross-cultural negotiations

Presenters: Dr. Cheryl Rivers & Steffen Bertram

June-Korero-230In the new global economy, cross-cultural negotiations have become a central issue for multinational corporations. Emotions, and in particular, the social effect of emotions, has been a major area of interest within this field over the past decade.

Recently, researchers have focused on the social or interpersonal effects of anger. However, the synthesis of the influence of anger during negotiations remains a major challenge, considering literature offers contradictory findings whether anger has any benefit to negotiators to use strategically. Subsequent research has drawn attention to these contradictory findings and has offered a number of moderating variables to the effectiveness of anger during negotiations, for example, power, authenticity and preconceived cultural stereotypes.

Surprisingly, the social effects of anger have not been closely examined at an individual level. Existing research in the field of Psychology recognizes the critical role played by personality traits in demanding situations, such as negotiations. This research has shown personality traits, such as action vs. state orientation, to be significant predictors of performance. Action vs. state orientation can be understood as the ability to maintain intentions and especially in response to an expressed emotion. That is, there are individual differences in how one can supress or intensify the way emotion is felt and expressed.

This presentation will provide a brief overview of the current literature and focus on whether action vs. state orientation is the missing piece of the puzzle in the current understanding of the social effects of anger.

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Keeping Her Condition Stable: A Historical Analysis of Advertising to New Zealand Nurses in the Kai Tiaki Magazine 1908-1929

Presenter: Dr. Jayne Krisjanous

Old Advertisement from KaiTiaki magazineThe turn of the century was a period where the production capability of print advertising advanced rapidly. Pollay (1985) describes old magazines as a “fascinating window of our social history where advertising displays behaviors, styles and roles for objects” (pg 24). As a form of print media, trade magazines and journals were a valuable means of disseminating specialized up-to-date information to workers and also provided advertisers direct access to target markets. At the same time, advertising was an important means of providing revenue for fledgling association journals anxious to off-set costs of production and circulation not able to be met entirely by member subscriptions. This study investigates advertising placed in the ‘Kai Tiaki’ journal (the first and at the time sole New Zealand (NZ) nurses’ journal) in the early part of the 20th century; a chronological timeline that parallels the increased rise in sophistication of print advertising and developments within an emergent qualified nursing service.

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Getting Your Paper Published: A Gamble or a Skill?

The School of Marketing and International Business invites you to an academic writing seminar:

Presenter: Dr. Eelko Huizingh
This seminar will be followed by Hongzhi's Korero seminar after a 10 minute afternoon tea.

Dr Huizingh is a prolific writer with over 300 publications, including academic papers in top journals, professional articles, columns and books. His seminar will be on tips for publishing.

Top academic journals have an acceptance rate of 10 percent, or less. What could make your paper to be ‘that special one’? Is it a gamble or a skill? We think it is much more a skill than a gamble that makes the difference. A better paper is not always a better study. Often, a better paper is a paper that has been written better. It is the product of a more skilled author. Since skills can be trained, we discuss how to increase the success rate of academic papers.

In this seminar we focus on the essentials of academic writing. An important element of a successful paper is the introduction. Here, the contribution of the paper is defined. What is the problem? Why is it relevant? What do we already know about it? What will this paper add to our understanding? We will also discuss the process of writing: how can you make your work easier to read? Finally, we address the review: how do you survive this (partly) subjective process? Why is academic writing relevant? . . .

More information about Dr. Eelko Huizingh academic career can be found at: .

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Relational Risks for Boundary Spanners in Chinese-Foreign Business Interactions - A Guanxi and Confucian Interpretation

Presenter: Dr Hongzhi Gao

Guanxi as a cultural construct (‘personal connections’ in Chinese) has been seen as a valuable resource and also a management dilemma for foreign businesses operating in China.  A systemic review of the literature finds that the international marketing and guanxi literature has paid little attention to indigenous concerns of organisational boundary spanners when they attempt to work between guanxi insiders (Chinese employees/clients/suppliers/agents/distributors) and outsiders (foreign parties) in a shared middle-culture zone. This paper takes a relational risk perspective and investigates the guanxi perceived constraints for boundary spanners. We applied an inductive-deductive theory building approach to draw conceptual understandings. Fifty-six in-depth interviews were conducted with Chinese and Western informants in China and New Zealand.  This study revealed nine guanxi-bounded cultural constraints at the empirical level. By applying the relational risk concept, the guanxi network view, and also the Confucian ideology, the paper develops a conceptual model of guanxi perceived risks in boundary spanning; all related to breaking of Confucian norms and a threat to boundary spanners’ status or position in closely-knitted guanxi networks. An improved understanding of relational risk in a guanxi network structure is therefore offered.

This study offers some practical implications for Western firms trading with or investing in China: A negotiated guanxi strategy may largely counteract the risks for guanxi boundary spanners by embracing fewer requirements for transparency or keeping guanxi information confidential, assuring insiders’ positions, protecting their face, granting them power, placing more personal trust in them, and reciprocating their use of personal networks. A dual identity, an open-minded guanxi boundary spanner, may play a vital role in intercultural relationships.

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Like it or Not: Differences in Advertising Likeability and Dislikeability Within Asia

Presenter: Dr Aaron Gazley

This study is part of a stream of Asian focussed research, with an emphasis on Asian consumer's attitudes towards television advertisements (ads). The results provide insight into the antecedents and consequences of liked and disliked ads and the cultural differences that influence these relationships. A matched sample of young consumers from the four Asian cities was asked to nominate ads that they both liked and disliked. They also provided reasons as to why they were liked and disliked and the effect this had on their purchase intentions. Findings show that ad likeability increases if people feel that advertising provides something to talk about. Conversely, people who find advertising annoying have higher ratings of ad dislikeability. Results also show that, a close relationship exists between liking (disliking) television ads and buying more (less) of the advertised products. However for all these relationships, differences were found to exist between Asian cities, with the only commonality being that disliked ads reduce intent to purchase. The results suggest that adherence to a standardised regional advertising strategy based on assumptions that close geography and culture within the Asian region is appropriate, could lead to precious little success for firms.

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The Effect of Interfirm Relational ties on Information Sharing and Knowledge Acquisition: Does Guanxi Institution Matter?

Presenter: Dr Forrest Yang

This study examines the effects of Guanxi institution on the relationships among interfirm relational ties, information sharing, and knowledge acquisition in the setting of Chinese business environments. With data collected from 338 manufacturing companies, the authors find that, with strong Guanxi institution, interfirm relational ties are linearly related to information sharing; whereas with withering Guanxi institution, the marginal effects of an interfirm relational tie declines as its strength increases. On the contrast, in an environment with strong Guanxi institution, information sharing has an inverted U-shaped effect on knowledge acquisition; whereas in an environment with weak Guanxi institution, the relationship becomes linear. Guanxi institution also partially moderates the direct, positive effect of interfirm relational ties on knowledge acquisition. The findings can help managers strategically adjust interfirm relational ties in terms of different institutional environments so as to maximize knowledge acquisition.

Forrest Yang is an associate professor at SMIB. His current research interest is on institutional theory in business markets. He has publish in such journals as Journal of Marketing Research, Journal of International Business Studies, Journal of Operations Management, among others.

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The influence of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on the globalisation of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)

Presenter: Dr Thomas Borghoff

Accelerated globalisation since the 1990s and the development of Internet-based information and communication technologies (ICTs) drive each other. Nonetheless, there has been limited research on the influence of ICT on the globalisation process of firms. The seminar serves to provide an overview of existing literature in this field and to develop a basic framework for the study of the influence of ICT on the globalisation process of firms. Specifically, the seminar reflects on the influence of ICT on the four subprocesses of globalisation:

  1. global foundation of firms (“Born Globals”/”International New Ventures”)
  2. internationalisation
  3. global network development, and
  4. global evolutionary dynamics.

An empirical study serves to provide evidence for this influence based on a mixed method approach. The study is based on twenty histographic case studies of SMEs founded after 1980 from four countries in both large emerging markets (China and India) and in small developed markets (New Zealand and Singapore). The study therefore allows for a comparison of firms on different levels. NVivo 8 helped in the analysis of qualitative data, exemplified and enriched through “quantising” the results by using descriptive statistics. The results show that most SMEs in the sample by now have contrary to previous findings already a “deep” integration of ICT in their global activities and that the discussion of “born global” versus “incremental internationalisation” is not as clear as it seems. In addition, the study provides evidence that despite the general focus in literature on “levelling the playing field” in the internationalisation (i.e., building up new activities abroad) between SMEs and large multinationals, the most important influence of ICT perceived by the sample firms is rather on global network development and on the management of global evolutionary dynamics.

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Findings from the FRST project: Service Success in Asia-Building a Sustainable Competitive Advantage for New Zealand Service Firms in Asia: Spotlight on China and India

Presenter: Dr Val Lindsay.

This 2-year FRST-funded research project was completed in September 2010. The project utilised a dyadic approach, involving interview data from seventy managers of New Zealand firms engaged in business in China and/or India. Interview data were also collected from approx. twenty five customers of these firms, as well as fifteen to twenty other respondents associated with them (e.g. government agencies, advisors etc) in each of China and India. The presentation will provide an overview of the major findings as they will be presented to the New Zealand business and government communities at the end of March. Themes for potential journal publication will also be explored.

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Using process research to better understand decisions of cultural sponsorship

Presenter: Kate Daellenbach.

The purpose of this seminar is to introduce some of my research, and in particular to discuss process research; and how it was applied in this study.

The subject of the research is the decision process by companies considering cultural sponsorship. Sponsorship is a significant part of revenues for many cultural organisations around the world, yet little is known of the process potential sponsors work through in making these decisions. This research seeks to better understand how these decisions are made, and does so using tools and techniques of process research, which addresses dynamic questions about temporally evolving phenomena (Langley, 2009, p. 409).

Guided by process research advice, a multiple-case method was employed whereby data was gathered from informants within cultural organizations and paired sponsoring companies for 10 sponsorship decisions in New Zealand.; Within and between case analyses were conducted and examined interactively. The results of this study indicate that cultural sponsorship decision-making processes may be divided into stages. Considering these stages, three process paths are identified, along with influences which determine and characterise these paths. These processes and influences combine together to paint a more detailed picture of these decisions, to offer contributions to the literature and to suggest areas for future study.