On this page:
- Visiting researcher exploring bird’s eye view
- Baby gibbon fostered by Victoria University student
- Students to set sail on Anzac voyage
- Unique animal communities may need special protection
- Putting the ‘P’ in pest control
- VUCEL Open Day brings in the crowds
- Improving cat welfare may reduce environmental impact
- World’s wildlife—a critical economy
- Survey reveals signs of tuatara recovery
- Populations benefit from having different kettles of fish
- Kiwis help with lab-grown retina
- US funding to research retinal disease
- Experts eye natural ways to control ants
- Victoria graduate helps ensure survival of New Zealand’s rarest kiwi
- Wellington abuzz as wild bee colony swarms on university
- A grim future for coral reefs—why it matters for New Zealand
2 April 2015
A visiting Victoria University of Wellington researcher will provide a peep into where bird’s travel in a new project investigating the activities of young kākāriki.
Ellen Irwin, an ecology student from Dartmouth College in the United States, is in Wellington carrying out a year-long study on the red-crowned parakeet, a New Zealand parakeet now breeding at Zealandia.
The James B. Reynolds Scholarship winner is interested in where the kākāriki go when they leave the wildlife sanctuary.
“Kākāriki can and do travel far. Little is known about what they’re doing, what other animals they run into and what they’re eating once they leave the sanctuary”, says Miss Irwin.
“Up to this point Zealandia has only received scattered information from people in surrounding areas.”
Red-crowned parakeets were first transferred to the sanctuary from Kapiti Island in 2010 as part of the sanctuary’s restoration programme to reintroduce the missing species. Over 500 locally bred birds have been banded at the sanctuary since their release.
With the support of Zealandia, Wellington City Council and Victoria University, Miss Irwin is looking specifically at the activities of juvenile (young) kākāriki.
Some of the juveniles will be attached with transmitters to track their movements, but the project will also rely on observations from the public.
“Once I have a good idea of where they’re going I will look more closely at what they get up to and what they encounter. It would be great if locals could keep an eye out for them—any information is really helpful”, says Miss Irwin.
“If you see someone wandering around with a big blue antenna, don’t be alarmed. I've received some very strange looks and comments over the last few days, including when someone asked if I was tracking aliens, and another person asked if I had lost my television.”
Kākāriki are bright green in colour and the red-crowned parakeet is distinguished by a bright crimson forehead, crown and a streak extending back beyond the eyes. They are usually solitary or found in pairs, although in autumn and winter they may form small flocks.
Miss Irwin hopes results could help the conservation of the species.
“It could give us information about the plants that kākāriki prefer thus encouraging people to grow those in their backyards. Or if we find the birds are caught by predators like stoats or rats, we could encourage extra trapping in those areas to keep them safe”, she says. “The more information we can gather the more we can help them.”
Kākāriki observations can be posted online at Naturewatch.
For more information contact Ellen Irwin on 022 311 5468.
24 March 2015
A Victoria University Masters student became an impromptu foster mother for an endangered baby gibbon during his studies in Cambodia.
Ecology student Naven Hon discovered the infant ape, believed to be one year old or less, all alone. Hon and an assistant were researching gibbons in the Veun Sai-Siem Pang Conservation area when they came across the highly endangered animal on Thursday.
The Northern Buff-cheeked Gibbon baby was hanging off a small tree when they spotted it, Hon said. "It seemed not ill, but scared and skinny," he told university supervisor Ken Ryan.
It should have been part of a group, but there was no sign of this group or the gibbon's mother, he said. Fearing the mother was injured or dead, the pair brought it back to the research station, and it was kept warm in an insulated bag. Being too young to be weaned from its mother, Hon tested out a few foods, including infant formula, fresh milk and bananas.
"He seems to like drinking milk rather than banana."
Hon returned to the area where the infant was found to search for its mother, but with no luck, the gibbon was transported to the Phnom Tamao wildlife rescue centre on Monday. "I hope it can survive with special care."
The species has a small range in south Vietnam, Laos and north-east Cambodia, and is threatened by habitat loss and hunting.
19 March 2015
Two Victoria University of Wellington students with World War I connections will represent New Zealand on board a square-rigged tall ship as dawn breaks at Gallipoli on Anzac Day.
Isabella Thompson and Bex McMenamin are two of three New Zealanders and 21 Australians selected to crew the Young Endeavour ship across the Mediterranean Sea on the third leg of its world voyage.
After a few weeks on the water, the Young Endeavour will sail to the Gallipoli Peninsula, anchoring for a dawn service on Anzac Day, along with Navy ships from Australia and New Zealand.
Both Isabella, who is studying toward a Bachelor of Biomedical Science, and Bex, a third year law and arts student, have personal connections to World War I—which was part of the criteria for New Zealanders to board the Young Endeavour.
Isabella’s great-great-grandfather fought in Gallipoli along with two great-great-uncles, one of whom died at Quinn’s Post. His name is on a memorial at Lone Pine Cemetery in Gallipoli.
Bex’s great-grandfather and his cousin arrived at Gallipoli and fought in World War I, then moved to Belgium where the cousin passed away.
“To be at the 100th anniversary commemoration of Gallipoli on Anzac Day is going to be really special,” says Bex, who is also looking forward to seeing the sun rise in different places and meeting new people. “The ship is a mini world. You are relying on each other all the time so you do form quite intense, strong friendships.”
Isabella is excited to get out on the water—“there is just something so cool about it,” she says.
The pair had met each other once and chatted online to arrange flights and then, by chance, ended up in the same Spanish class together.
“We will have to take our textbooks with us to keep on top of our uni work,” they say. “It’s going to be crazy, but so incredibly worth it.”
For more information visit www.youngendeavour.gov.au or contact Bex on 027 843 7426 or Isabella on 027 757 4795.
18 March 2015
New Zealand’s underwater mountains are home to unique animal communities which need careful environmental management, research from Victoria University of Wellington and the National Institute of Water & Atmospheric (NIWA) reveals.
The collaborative deep-sea study discovered that the hydrothermal activity of these mountains—known as seamounts—helps to create unique sets of biological communities.
PhD student Rachel Boschen, working under the supervision of Professor Jonathan Gardner from Victoria’s School of Biological Sciences and Dr Ashley Rowden and Dr Malcolm Clark from NIWA, says seamounts generate special minerals due to their location near tectonic plates.
“Cold water filters through the seabed, heats up and shoots out as hot acidic water. As this water cools, minerals containing gold, silver, copper and zinc form giant black chimneys on the sea floor. These chimneys collapse and reform, creating large mounds of metal-rich mineral deposits.”
These mineral deposits are hugely valuable, not only for mining but also to deep-sea species, says Rachel.
“Some of the chemicals, such as hydrogen sulfide and methane, support communities that exist without sunlight, instead relying on bacteria that metabolise chemicals from the hot water. Animals in such communities can’t survive away from the sites that supply these chemicals.”
The research team studied three seamounts along the Kermadec volcanic arc, each with different levels of hydrothermal activity. By towing a video camera at depth from a ship and using an echo sounder, they were able to gather data on local ecologies as well as the environment and terrain.
“We found that each seamount has unique groups of animals”, says Rachel, “depth and seabed terrain helped explain differences in communities but the most important driver was hydrothermal activity.”
The study, published yesterday as a featured journal article in Marine Ecology Progress Series, may have implications for the mining of these areas.
“To carry out seabed mining you must have protected ‘set-aside’ areas to conserve ecologically important parts of the seabed,” says Rachel. “But because each seamount contains unique communities, you may need to have a number of set-aside areas distributed over multiple seamounts to protect all of them.”
The results also suggest seamounts with low hydrothermal activity may support communities not found elsewhere within the region.
“Previously it was thought the protection of communities at sites where hydrothermal activity was low or had ceased was of less concern,” says Rachel. “But the groups of animals at these sites don’t exist elsewhere, suggesting they need to be protected as well.”
For more information contact Rachel Boschen at email@example.com.
16 March 2015
Animal urine will be used to make more effective traps for problematic pests like rats and brushtail possum in a research project from Victoria University of Wellington.
A team of scientists, led by Dr Wayne Linklater from Victoria’s School of Biological Sciences, has been awarded $1 million from the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment to create ‘super-lure’ pest control technology.
The team has identified proteins and chemicals in rat and possum urine that act as pheromones and trigger an attraction in other animals. The proteins may bond to the chemicals to release them slowly, making them active for longer and suitable as lures.
“We can at least double the amount of contact time an animal has with a trap by using urine compounds, meaning an animal is more likely to be caught,” says Dr Linklater.
“Lures like peanut butter or cheese that have been used by people to trap pests like rats in their homes and businesses, farms, warehouses and factories, can be improved upon.”
The second phase of the project now turns to developing protein-chemical pairs as lures for traps. Various combinations of wild rat and mouse urinary proteins and chemicals will be tested to find the best pheromone attraction, in self-resetting traps from local company Goodnature.
Dr Linklater says effective traps are particularly important to our primary food industries struggling to eradicate pests, or wanting to guarantee that their facilities are pest-free.
“Rodents and brushtail possum carry diseases like Bovine Tb and Leptospirosis, which are a serious problem if they get into agricultural food production and processing systems. New pest-control technologies are needed to reduce those pest and disease risks to our export industries.”
There is also an international demand for pest control that is poison-free and more humane, says Dr Linklater.
“Currently, the most effective pest-controls require widespread and repeated use of poison. Our new invention offers New Zealand better economic and environmental returns.”
For more information contact Dr Wayne Linklater on 027 563 8575 or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
10 March 2015
Saturday’s wild weather didn’t dampen the Victoria University Coastal Ecology Laboratory (VUCEL) Open Day, with more than 1,000 visitors flooding through the doors. The state-of-the-art marine laboratory in Island Bay held its annual opening day, entertaining visitors of all ages with various interactive activities and displays.
“Guests got a chance to test the salinity preferences of whitebait, and estimate the age of baby fish by counting daily growth increments on fish ear bones under a microscope. Younger visitors were guided through science activities with the aid of a scavenger hunt, which was very popular, ” says Dr Jeff Shima, Director of the Coastal Ecology Laboratory.
Visitors also got an insight into the laboratory’s latest research and findings, with 30 dedicated volunteers, including postgraduate students and technical and academic staff from the School of Biological Sciences, generously donating their time. “Their efforts helped to create another fantastic open day,” says Dr Shima. “I think this year’s was the best yet.”
Photographs of the event can be seen here: VUCEL Open Day 2015
6 March 2015
Scientists are looking to cat owners for solutions to reduce the environmental impact of their pets on native wildlife.
A team of researchers, led by Dr Wayne Linklater from the Centre for Biodiversity and Restoration Ecology at Victoria University of Wellington, recently surveyed veterinarians and cat owners to understand their attitudes and beliefs about cat welfare and behaviour.
The survey found that most veterinarians believe keeping cats inside at night would positively impact cat welfare and also benefit wildlife—because cats that are inside from before dusk to after dawn have reduced opportunities to hunt for native insects, reptiles and birds.
“We know cats kept indoors, particularly at night, will reduce the high rates of cat injury from cat fights, disease transmission and vehicle collisions. Importantly, 99 percent of owners surveyed said they would be willing to bring their cats in at night,” says Dr Linklater.
Drawing on expertise from Massey University, the University of Otago and University of Plymouth, England, the second phase of the study will use survey findings to motivate owners to make changes in how they care for their cats that might also address environmental problems.
PhD research by Victoria University graduate, Dr Edith MacDonald, shows cat owners are concerned most for their cats’ welfare. “The question for a wildlife biologist trying to solve a cat-related problem is how we can tap into that concern and motivation,” says Dr Linklater.
Keeping cats in at night might not be the strategy that reduces their impact on native species most, but Dr Linklater says it is a compromise between what needs to be done and what can be done.
For more information contact Dr Wayne Linklater on 04-463 8575 or email email@example.com.
3 March 2015
The following commentary is provided by Dr Wayne Linklater, an associate professor of conservation science and Director of the Centre for Biodiversity and Restoration Ecology at Victoria University of Wellington.
Wildlife is critical to the economies of nations. New Zealand’s wildlife – whales, dolphins, red deer, thar, albatross, kiwi, tuatara, fish and kauri – attract tourists. And the tourists who come to see or hunt our wildlife stay for longer and spend more, especially in our provinces and small towns, than those who come for our casinos and high-end hotels.
In Australia the economic value of koala alone was estimated at A$1.1 billion. There are no estimates for how much wildlife contribute to New Zealand’s economy, but if they contribute as much to our $10 billion tourism industry as they do to Australia’s, then our wildlife are worth about $1 billion in tourist spending.
But when the United Nations launches World Wildlife Day (3 March) it is not us but the world’s poorest nations, especially in Africa, on which attention will be focussed.
Africa’s poorest nations earn critical foreign currency from tourism—US$83 million in Sierra Leone, US$26 million in Malawi and US$66 million in the tiny nation of Eritera.
Between 20 to 40 percent of international tourism is for wildlife. Tourism brought over US$7 billion to the South African economy last year—about 80 percent of which is for wildlife. Only Kenya’s coffee exports earn more each year than the US$400 to 900 million from wildlife tourism.
And, of course, wildlife is food in Africa’s poorest nations—without wildlife, much of rural Africa would be less nourished, even starved.
But the national and household livelihoods of these poorest countries are threatened by heavily armed, well organised international crime syndicates illegally hunting and trading their wildlife to extinction.
The challenge of illegal hunting has grown. Trade between countries has become easier. Rhinoceros and elephant, critically endangered in Africa and Asia from demand for their horns and tusks, are just the small tip of a gigantic illegal trade iceberg.
This is not just a battle for the survival and conservation of species, it is war for a better future in the world’s poorest nations.
In New Zealand, we can feel somewhat removed from all the threat. But we have a role to play—an opportunity to support international wildlife economies and to grow our own.
New Zealander’s are frequent travellers for wildlife tourism and our dollars support wildlife-economies. But Kiwi’s can also be a part of the problem. Returning home with rare corals and shells, butterfly, or plants native to southern Africa and the Asia-Pacific is common.
There is also an ongoing threat from the illegal capture and export of our own wildlife. Thirty-two New Zealand species are listed by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, or CITES.
Although intensely controversial, legitimate trade in wildlife, including endangered species, has to also be a part of the conservation solution. Income from wildlife trade ensures that nations are highly motivated and their economies can afford to protect wildlife. South Africa, for example, should be allowed to sell rhino horn and elephant ivory, albeit in ways that improve wildlife protections.
New Zealand could be doing the same with its wildlife.
Many zoos and wildlife centres would like to have a real life kiwi, kakapo or kokako in their collections and they should pay handsomely for the privilege. Our wildlife could be leased to the world’s public and private zoos and wildlife parks. China has mastered this. It has been several decades since China gave away a giant panda. Nowadays they lease them to the world’s zoos—generating millions of dollars in foreign revenue.
What we need is a legitimate market that can be supplied sustainably. Wildlife conservation should not be a charity but a business. The New Zealand taxpayer should not be a wildlife philanthropist, but a wildlife investor.
Importantly, if we make more money in these ways from our native and exotic wildlife, in addition to that from ecotourism, we increase wildlife’s value to a greater diversity of New Zealanders.
To make this future possible, many of us will need to leave our qualms about exploiting wildlife-as-a-resource behind. New Zealand could learn very much from Africa’s modern wildlife economies and their entrepreneurial and pragmatic conservation industries.
27 February 2015
The tuatara population on Hauturu ō Toi/Little Barrier Island may be recovering, according to results from a recent survey carried out with help from Victoria University of Wellington researchers.
Since the early 1990s, an intensive tuatara conservation recovery programme has been run on the island, where the species had not been seen for 10 years.
In a collaboration between Victoria University, Department of Conservation (DoC), local Mana Whenua Ngati Manuhiri, Auckland Zoo and the Hauturu Supporters Trust, the programme has helped to save a threatened population of tuatara from extinction. The initiative has included eradicating pests on the island, which was declared rat-free in 2006.
During an eight-day survey in January this year, volunteers found four unmarked tuatara. Sue Keall, a technician in Victoria’s School of Biological Sciences who helped carry out the survey, says this provides positive insight into how the tuatara are surviving.
“The young tuatara could have been bred from existing wild tuatara that were not seen during the original surveys, or from captive-bred tuatara that had been released on the island by the programme,” she says.
“We aren’t able to tell their age, but it is fantastic to know the wild population might be able to successfully breed again, now that cats and kiore (Pacific rats) have been eradicated.”
A number of areas on the 3,000-hectare island were identified for searching, based around where tuatara had been caught during the first survey period, locations where there had been reported sightings, or sites where they had been released from the breeding programme.
The programme sends tuatara eggs laid on the island to Victoria University to be incubated and hatched.
“Incubation at the university keeps them a bit safer—it stops the eggs from drying out or getting dug up accidentally by other tuatara on the island. We’re simply maximising their chances of success,” says Ms Keall.
The young tuatara are then returned to Hauturu ō Toi/Little Barrier Island for release.
Surveyors also spotted the endangered Duvaucel’s Gecko on the island, indicating this species is also in recovery after removal of kiore. Ms Keall, who was in the first survey team 23 years ago, says the island is showing encouraging signs.
“Because it’s such a large island and also is quite high in altitude, it retains a variety of vegetation types making it a really good varied habitat. It’s very exciting seeing species that were really struggling now starting to recover on the island.”
In August last year, Victoria University published rare footage of a tuatara hatching. The tuatara filmed was an offspring from the programme.
Watch it here: www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Ar4hG8b534
11 February 2015
Their research was primarily focused on the common triplefin, a small marine fish found along shallow reefs and tide pools throughout New Zealand.
The Marsden-funded study discovered that having a mixture of fish with different traits had positive effects on the triplefin population.
“We wanted to test whether the weaker fish attracted predators, or created less competition for resources and ultimately boosted the fate of the stronger fish,” says Dr Shima.
The research, published today in Biology Letters, used a set of mathematical models to explore the consequences of ‘losers’, finding that their presence can reduce the strength of competition between individuals and contribute to population persistence by adding to numbers and reducing fluctuations.
4 February 2015
In what sounds like a gruesome sci-fi plot, Victoria University researcher David Ackerley is preparing to grow an artificial retina.
The biotechnologist, and others in a world-leading international team, hope it could help to cure one of the most common forms of vision loss.
The retina is a layer of light-sensitive cells at the back of the eye, connecting to the brain and allowing us to see. Though its cells consistently regrow themselves, this is an imperfect process - and some people are genetically predisposed to more frequent damage or the repair going astray, leading to degenerative blindness.
The "retina in a petri dish" will be grown from stem cells at Johns Hopkins University in the United States. Ackerley's team at Victoria and a second at Johns Hopkins will act as chefs, designing the ideal DNA recipe.
Having successfully grown a prototype healthy one, their next step is to make an unhealthy one that mimics degenerative blindness.
"Now you've got it working, the question is how do you make it stop working in a way that mimics degeneration [of vision]," Ackerley said. "The key thing is you want to leave most of the retina intact."
The international team has been given a US$500,000 (NZ$684,000) grant for this work.
The trick to knocking out specific visual cells was to add instructions to their DNA that made them die when exposed to an otherwise-harmless substance, leaving the cells around them unharmed.
Ackerley, with the Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, is currently studying how transporting such DNA recipes into cancer cells could become a revolutionary new treatment. His team's experience in this made him ideally placed to join the international research.
Once they have grown the new retina, they will begin first by killing cells, then seeing what medicines help the retina to repair itself.
"I wouldn't say we've got a cure for blindness . . . It allows you to look in a way that can't currently be done for new drugs."
The example could be followed for studying diseases in other organs as well.
"This is a great system for just being able to look at the cells without harming any animals, and actually looking at the human response."
Bacteria and human cells can have a vastly different reaction to a substance - it's why when taking an antibiotic the drug will kill bacteria without affecting us.
David Ackerley's DNA recipe instructions borrow from the bacteria cookbook, specifically the steps to make a certain enzyme. The original enzyme converts an otherwise-harmless substance into a toxic one, poisonous enough to kill a cell. Ackerley's lab has since turbo-charged it, making the enzyme highly efficient.
By inserting these instructions into the same page of the cookbook as the recipe for a visual cell means just these specific cells will use them.
Therefore, when the harmless substance is added to the artificial retina, the light-receptive cells will make the toxin while the recipe will stay inert and unused in all other cells, which will live.
- The Dominion Post
29 January 2015
28 January 2015
As Christchurch residents fight booming ant populations, researchers are working to find a natural control of the pests.
Residents across the city, including in New Brighton and Mt Pleasant, have taken to social media this summer to express their frustration at an increase in ant numbers.
Victoria University professor of biology and ant expert Phil Lester is part of a team studying populations to help find alternative ways to lower pest numbers. Lester was in Christchurch on Monday sampling Argentine ants, which are a "major international pest".
Populations of Argentine ants at Riccarton High School, on Tuam St and at New Brighton beach are among those being sampled across the country's entire distribution for the nationwide project.
"We're trying to find ways of natural control of these ants," says Lester.
With a team at The Institute of Environmental Science and Research (ESR), called the Virus Hunters, last year a new virus was found in the Argentine ants.
"From here, we hope to do some work to see if it is really harmful or not."
Lester says on a long-term scale, the research has the potential to limit the need for extermination methods and pesticides.
Argentine ants were likely to blame for the city's issue because they were "the most problematic in New Zealand", he says.
Argentine ants have been present in Christchurch, the southern-most point of their existence, for several years, he says.
"I'm not sure if we took them out of an urban environment they'd be able to survive. They need the warmth humans provide – and cities tend to be warmer points."
Cleaner Megan Thomson wakes up every day and wonders where ants will crop up in her Aranui home. She says the problem has been getting worse over the last two years.
Ants have taken over Thomson's kitchen, garage and have even been found in her bedroom wardrobe.
"They do cost you on so many levels and they cost you time as well," she said.
Despite meticulously cleaning her house, leaving bait out and hiring an exterminator, the ants are finding their way into any sealed and packaged food.
"You have to be on the ball all the time... you can't have a lazy day."
Lester said the movement of people and their possessions post-quake was contributing to the problem.
"These ants will nest in pot plants and that sort of environment, so they will be moved around a lot more like that," says Lester.
He said exterminating ants was an effective way to lower populations but it needed to be done collectively by neighbours so they did not "re-invade" properties.
Advice to lower Argentine ant numbers:
1. Prevention is much easier than cure, so if you're moving house, be very careful with what you move - for example, pot plants. If you're coming from an Argentine ant-infested problem, don't take the problem with you.
2. If you have Argentine ants already, then get the neighbourhood together for control, rather than tackle the problem by individual house.
3. Be clean with your food.
- The Press
26 January 2015
A Victoria University of Wellington PhD graduate’s work on the reintroduction of a critically endangered species of kiwi is helping ensure they remain in our forests for generations to come.
The rowi’s breeding range is limited to the Ōkārito forest in South Westland, where stoats and rats threaten eggs and young chicks.
26 January 2015
The captivating mystery of Wellington's runaway bees has been solved, a day after they escaped from Victoria University's Kelburn campus.
Media studies administrator Yvette Butcher says a student alerted her to the mass exodus yesterday, the pair watched "thousands of bees" fly away, she said.
Beekeeper and PHD student Davida Santoro managed to capture some in a cardboard box, but they escaped before a new home could be prepared for them.
"…the trapping wasn't successful, probably because I didn't get the queen" Mr Santoro said.
The fugitive bees left residents bug-eyed as they zoomed around the capital, with several people sending in footage of their encounter with the swarm.
Mr Santoro and another bee expert from Victoria University's School of Biological Sciences, Alan Hoverd, found the queen this morning setting up a new colony inside a wall of the university's media studies building.
Mr Santoro said students were never really in danger because the bees were just looking for a new nest.
"Swarming is a pretty spectacular event, you might be afraid of it, but actually they are really docile during the moment, they wouldn't sting unless they are squashed," he said.
New Zealand's bee population is being diminished by the varroa bee mite and the two experts believe they needed to do all they could to save the insects.
"Without bees you don't get pollination so there will be a reduction in produce... It has a nationwide affect," Mr Hoverd said.
You can see footage of the swarm here
Source: ONE News
26 January 2015
The following commentary is provided by Associate Professor Simon Davy, Head of the School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington.
The outlook for coral reefs around the world is bleak—predictions are that they could be completely gone in just a few decades. Coral reefs are a vital part of marine ecosystems but are being destroyed by global warming and ocean acidification, as well as more localised threats such as agricultural run-off, poor fishing practices (unbelievably, cyanide and dynamite are used in some countries to catch fish) and coastal development. While New Zealand does not have coral reefs, we do have corals and we do have a responsibility to take action.
Across the Pacific Ocean coral reefs are declining at a rate of about two percent a year, and it may be only 40 to 50 years before they’re completely gone. What makes them important is their biodiversity—coral reefs are home to many millions of species, from fish and plant life to microscopic bacteria. They also provide a source of food and income from tourism for many of our near neighbours, such as Fiji. Australia, too, has the world renowned Great Barrier Reef. If these reefs are lost, some of these countries could find themselves in dire economic straits. That gives New Zealand—as part of its international stewardship role—responsibility to try to help stem the deterioration of the reefs and minimise the potentially devastating effects their demise might have on the health of our regional economy.
The most widely recognised threat to corals is the warming of the world’s oceans. Reefs are like ‘a canary in the coalmine’—warming of seawater by as little as one degree causes a process known as coral bleaching, where microscopic algae that live inside the coral, and are essential to its survival, are lost. A coral can only survive without these algae for a month or so. The algae are also the building blocks for a coral reef ecosystem which is an important habitat for fish, invertebrates and other algae. If they have nowhere to live, there is a devastating flow-on effect on the wider ecosystem.
Ocean acidification, where carbon dioxide from atmospheric pollution enters the ocean and makes it more acidic, is also a major problem. Corals need calcium carbonate to build skeletons, but when the ocean tries to fend off the acidity it uses carbonate ions, depleting the amount of carbonate ions available to build coral skeletons, or indeed the skeletons or shells of numerous other organisms.
New Zealand does have coral communities, rather than reefs, for example around the Kermadec Islands and in the Bay of Islands. However, we don’t currently know enough about them to determine to what extent they might be affected by climate change. There are also deep sea coral communities around New Zealand, which—along with NIWA—I am currently studying. These corals don’t contain algae, but are nevertheless under serious threat from ocean acidification because they live at the boundary of the area where there’s enough carbonate to build a skeleton. If that boundary gets any shallower they’ll be in real trouble, and we could lose a very important habitat as many deep sea invertebrates (e.g. sponges, squat lobsters and urchins) and fish, including some commercial species, are often found in association with these corals.
There is not really any good news for coral reefs. However, current research—including work by my team at Victoria University of Wellington—is looking at whether they can adapt to climate change. They might, for example, be able to take up new, more thermally tolerant types of algae when they bleach or they could successfully migrate to cooler or less acidic waters. The problem is the speed at which our climate is changing and our reefs are deteriorating—science is struggling to keep pace. However, if we can buy some time by resolving local human impacts like fishing and pollution, we might be able to make coral reefs more resilient to the effects of global climate change. That’s not to say we shouldn’t also be addressing the causes of climate change, but trying to control or limit these other factors might give science time to catch up so that we can implement the strategies needed to ensure that the world’s coral reefs aren’t lost forever.