School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies

Words in Context

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Context Clues

Aborn, M., Rubenstein, H. and Sterling, T.D. (1959) Sources of contextual constraint upon words in sentences. Journal of Experimental Psychology 57, 3: 171-180. [18.1]

Ames, W.S. (1970) The use of classification schemes in teaching the use of contextual aids. Journal of Reading 14, 1: 5-8, 50. [18.1]

Ames, W.S. (1966) The development of a classification scheme of contextual aids. Reading Research Quarterly 2, 1: 57-82. [18.1]

Artley, A.S. (1943) Teaching word-meaning through context. Elementary English Review 20, 1: 68-74. [18.1]

Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G. and McCaslin, E.S. (1983) Vocabulary: all contexts are not created equal. Elementary School Journal 83, 3: 177-181. [18.1]

Chihara, T., Oller, J., Weaver, K. and Chavez-Oller, M.A. (1977) Are cloze items sensitive to discourse constraints? Language Learning 27: 63-73. [18.1]

Dulin, K.L. (1970) Using context clues in word recognition and comprehension. Reading Teacher 23, 5: 440-445. [18.1]

Dulin, K.L. (1969) New research on context clues. Journal of Reading 13, 1: 33-38, 53. [18.1]

Engelbart, S.M. and Theuerkauf, B. (1999) Defining context within vocabulary acquisition. Language Teaching Research 3, 1: 57-69. [18.1]

Hafner, L.E. (1967) Using context to determine meanings in high school and college. Journal of Reading 10, 7: 491-498. [18.1]

Hirano, K. (1983) Classification schemes and empirical study of context clues. JACET : 1-27. [18.1]

Honeyfield, J. (1977) Word frequency and the importance of context in vocabulary learning. RELC Journal 8, 2: 35-42. [18.1]

Hunt, A. (1996) Constraints on inferring word meaning from context. Journal of Inquiry and Research (Kansai Gaidai University) 63: 239-249. [18.1]

Leys, M., Fielding, L., Herman, P. and Pearson, P.D. (1983) Does cloze measure intersentence comprehension? A modified replication of Shanahan, Kamil, and Tobin. In Niles and Harris: 111-114. [18.1]

Manzo, A.V. and Sherk, J.K. (1972) Some generalizations and strategies for guiding vocabulary learning. Journal of Reading Behavior 4, 1: 78-89. [18.1]

McCullough, C.M. (1958) Context aids in reading. Reading Teacher 11, 4: 225-229. [18.1]

McCullough, C.M. (1945) The recognition of context clues in reading. Elementary English Review 22, 1: l-5, 38. [18.1]

McCullough, C.M. (1943) Learning to use context clues. Elementary English Review 20: 140-143. [18.1]

Nation, I.S.P. (1979) The curse of the comprehension question: some alternatives. Guidelines: RELC Journal Supplement 2: 85-103. [18.1]

Rankin, E.F. and Overholser, B.M. (1969) Reaction of intermediate grade children to contextual clues. Journal of Reading Behavior 1, 3: 50-73. [18.1]

Rivero, G.A. and Best, M. (1978) Strategies for solving lexical problems through discourse and context. In C. H. Blatchford and J. Schachter (eds) On TESOL '78 TESOL, Washington: 191-198. [18.1]

Rye, J. (1985) Are cloze items sensitive to constraints across sentences? A review. Journal of Research in Reading (UKRA) 8, 2: 94-105. [18.1]

Schatz, E.K. and Baldwin, R.S. (1986) Context clues are unreliable predictors of word meaning. Reading Research Quarterly 21, 4: 439-453. [18.1]

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Observational Studies of Guessing

Arden-Close, C. (1993) NNS readers' strategies for inferring the meanings of unknown words. Reading in a Foreign Language 9, 2: 867-893. [18.2]

Gibbons, H. (1940) The ability of college freshmen to construct the meaning of a strange word from the context in which it appears. Journal of Experimental Education 9, 1: 29-33. [18.2]

Haastrup, K. (1991) . Lexical inferencing procedures or talking about words Gunter Narr, TŸbingen. [18.2]

Haastrup, K. (1989) . Lexical inferencing procedures Handelshojskolen i Kobenhavn: 1, 2. [18.2]

Haastrup, K. (1987) Using thinking aloud and retrospection to uncover learners' lexical inferencing procedures. In C. Faerch and G. Kasper (eds) Introspection in Second Language Research Multilingual Matters, Clevedon: 197-212. [18.2]

Haastrup, K. (1985) Lexical inferencing - a study of procedures in reception. Scandinavian Working Papers on Bilingualism 5: 63-87. [18.2]

Haynes, M. (1984) Patterns and perils of guessing in second language reading. In J. Handscombe, R.A. Orem and B.P. Taylor (eds) On TESOL '83: The Question of Control TESOL, Washington: 163-176. [18.2]

Laufer, B. and Sim, D.D. (1985) Taking the easy way out: non-use and misuse of clues in EFL reading. English Teaching Forum 23, 2: 7-l0, 20. [18.2]

Morrison, L. (1996) Talking about words: a study of French as a second language learners' lexical inferencing procedures. Canadian Modern Language Journal 53, 1: 41-75. [18.2]

Schouten-van Parreren, C. (1988) Action psychology and vocabulary learning. Proceedings of the 1st International Congress on Activity Theory, Hildebrand-Nihlson, M. and Ruckriem: 325-331. [18.2]

Seibert, L.C. (1945) A study of the practice of guessing word meanings from a context. Modern Language Journal 29: 296-323. [18.2]

Werner, H. and Kaplan, E. (1950) Development of word meaning through verbal context: an experimental study. Journal of Psychology 29: 251-257. [18.2]

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L1 Learning From Guessing

Abramovici, S. (1984) Lexical information in reading and memory. Reading Research Quarterly 19, 2: 173-187. [18.3]

Anderson, R.C. and Nagy, W.E. (1992) The vocabulary conundrum. American Educator 16, 4: 14-18; 44-47. [18.3]

Aulls, M. (1971) Context in reading: How it may be depicted. Journal of Reading Behavior 3: 61-73. [18.3]

Baker, K.E. and Sonderegger, T.B. (1964) Acquisition of meaning through context. Psychonomic Science l: 75-76. [18.3]

Browne, B. (1989) Effects of vocabulary difficulty and text length on word definition and prose recall. Journal of General Psychology 116, 4: 385-392. [18.3]

Cairns, H.S., Cowart, W. and Jablon, A.D. (1981) Effects of prior context upon the integration of lexical information during sentence processing. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 20: 445-453. [18.3]

Carnine, D., Kameenui, E.J. and Coyle, G. (1984) Utilization of contextual information in determining the meaning of unfamiliar words. Reading Research Quarterly 19, 2: 188-204. [18.3]

Carroll, B. and Drum, P.A. (1983) Definitional gains for explicit and implicit context clues. In Niles and Harris: 158-162. [18.3]

Carroll, B. and Drum, P.A. (1982) Effects of context in facilitating unknown word comprehension. In J.A.Niles and L.A.Harris (eds), New enquiries in reading, National Reading Conference, Rochester, N.Y.: 89-93. [18.3]

Drum, P.A. and Konopak, B.C. (1987) Learning word meanings from context. In McKeown and Curtis: 73-87. [18.3]

Eichholz, G. and Barbe, R. (1961) An experiment in vocabulary development. Educational Research Bulletin 40, 1: l-7, 28. [18.3]

Elshout-Mohr, M. and van Daalen-Kapteijns, M. (1987) Cognitive processes in learning word meanings. In McKeown and Curtis: 53-71. [18.3]

Freebody, P. and Anderson, R.C. (1983) Effects on text comprehension of differing propositions and locations of difficult vocabulary. Journal of Reading Behavior 15, 3: 19-39. [18.3]

Gipe, J.P. (1980) Use of a relevant context helps kids learn new meanings. The Reading Teacher 33, 4: 398-402. [18.3]

Herman, P.A., Anderson, R.C., Pearson, P.D., Nagy, W.E. (1987) Incidental acquisition of word meaning from expositions with varied text features. Reading Research Quarterly 22, 3: 263-284. [18.3]

Hoffman, J.V. (1980) Studying contextual build-up during through cumulative cloze. Journal of Reading Behavior 12: 337-341. [18.3]

Jacoby, L.L., Craik, F.J.M. and Begg, J. (1979) Effects of decision difficulty on recognition and recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 18: 585-600. [18.3]

Jenkins, J.R. and Dixon, R. (1983) Vocabulary learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology 8: 237-260. [18.3]

Jenkins, J.R., Stein, M.L. and Wysocki, K. (1984) Learning vocabulary through reading. American Educational Research Journal 21, 4: 767-787. [18.3]

Kintsch, W. and Mross, E.F. (1985) Context effects in word identification. Memory and Language 24, 3: 336-349. [18.3]

Looby, R. (1939) Understandings children derive from their reading. Elementary English Review 16: 58-62. [18.3]

McKeown, M.G. (1985) The acquisition of word meaning from context by children of high and low ability. Reading Research Quarterly 20: 482-496. [18.3]

Nagy, W.E. and Herman, P.A. (1985) Incidental vs. instructional approaches to increasing reading vocabulary. Educational Perspectives 23: 16-21. [18.3]

Nagy, W.E., Anderson, R.C. and Herman, P.A. (1987) Learning word meanings from context during normal reading. American Educational Research Journal 24, 2: 237-270. [18.3]

Nagy, W.E., Herman, P. and Anderson, R.C. (1985) Learning words from context. Reading Research Quarterly 20: 233-253. [18.3]

Nemko, B. (1984) Context versus isolation: another look at beginning readers. Reading Research Quarterly 4: 461-467. [18.3]

Neuman, S.B. and Koskinen, P. (1992) Captioned television as comprehensible input: Effects of incidental word learning from context for language minority students. Reading Research Quarterly 27, 1: 95-106. [18.3]

Paivio, A. (1983) Strategies in language learning. In M. Pressley and J. R. Levin (eds) Cognitive Strategy Research: Educational Applications Springer-Verlag, New York: 189-210. [18.3]

Pany, D. and Jenkins, J.R. (1978) Learning word meanings: a comparison of instructional procedures. Learning Disability Quarterly l: 21-32. [18.3]

Pressley, M., Levin, J.R. and McDaniel, M.A. (1987) Remembering versus inferring what a word means: mnemonic and contextual approaches. In McKeown and Curtis : 107-127. [18.3]

Quealy, R.J. (1969) Senior high school students' use of context aids in reading. Reading Research Quarterly 4: 512-532. [18.3]

Rubin, D.C. (1976) The effectiveness of context before, after, and around a missing word. Perception and Psychophysics 19: 214-216. [18.3]

Sachs, H.J. (1943) The reading method of acquiring vocabulary. Journal of Educational Research 36: 457-464. [18.3]

Shefelbine, J.L. (1990) Student factors related to variability in learning word meanings from context. Journal of Reading Behavior 22, 1: 71-97. [18.3]

Shu, H., Anderson, R.C. and Zhang, Z. (1995) Incidental learning of word meanings while reading: a Chinese and American cross-cultural study. Reading Research Quarterly 30, 1: 76-95. [18.3]

Steinberg, J.S. (1978) Context clues as aids in comprehension. English Teaching Forum 16, 2: 6-9. [18.3]

Sternberg, R.J. (1987) Most vocabulary is learned from context. In McKeown and Curtis: 89-105. [18.3]

Sternberg, R.J. and Powell, J.S. (1983) Comprehending verbal comprehension. American Psychologist 38: 878-893. [18.3]

van Daalen-Kapteijns, M.M. and Elshout-Mohr, M. (1981) The acquisition of word meanings as a cognitive learning process. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 20: 386-399. [18.3]

Wittrock, M.C., Marks, C. and Doctorow, M. (1975) Reading as a generative process. Journal of Educational Psychology 67, 4: 484-489. [18.3]

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L2 learning From Guessing

Bensoussan, M. and Laufer, B. (1984) Lexical guessing in context in EFL reading comprehension. Journal of Research in Reading 7, 1: 15-32. [18.4]

Brown, C., Sagers, S.L. and LaPorte, C. (1999) Incidental vocabulary acqusition from oral and written dialogue journals. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 21: 259-283. [18.4]

Carton, A.S. (1971) Inferencing: a process in using and learning language. In P. Pimsleur and T. Quinn (eds) The Psychology of Second Language Learning Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 45-58. [18.4]

Dollerup, C., Glahn, E. and Hansen, C.R. (1982) Reading strategies and test-solving techniques in an EFL-reading comprehension test: a preliminary report. Journal of Applied Language Study 1, 1: 93-99. [18.4]

Dubin, F. and Olshtain, E. (1993) Predicting word meanings from contextual clues: evidence from L1 readers. In Huckin, Haynes and Coady: 181-202. [18.4]

Dupuy, B. and Krashen, S.D. (1993) Incidental vocabulary acquisition in French as a foreign language. Applied Language Learning 4, 1&2: 55-63. [18.4]

Fraser, C.A. (1999) Lexical processing strategy use and vocabulary learning through reading. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 21: 225-241. [18.4]

Hang, S. (1995) The effects of a context-embedded approach to second-language vocabulary learning. System 23, 1: 43-55. [18.4]

Haynes, M. (1993) Patterns and perils of guessing in second language reading. In Huckin, Haynes and Coady: 46-64. [18.4]

Heikkinen, H. (1983) Errors in lexical processing. In Ringbom: 47-56. [18.4]

Homburg, T.J. and Spaan, M.C. (1982) ESL reading proficiency assessment: testing strategies. In M. Hines and W. Rutherford (eds) On TESOL '81 TESOL, Washington: 25-33. [18.4]

Horst, M., Cobb, T., and Meara, P. (1998) Beyond a Clockwork Orange: acquiring second language vocabulary through reading. Reading in a Foreign Language 11, 2: 207-223. [18.4]

Hulstijn, J.H. (1992) Retention of inferred and given word meanings: experiments in incidental vocabulary learning. In P. Arnaud and H. Bejoint: 113-125. [18.4]

Khan, A. (1999) Dealing with unfamiliar words in a text. Modern English Teacher 8, 3: 36-37. [18.4]

Li Xiaolong (1988) Effects of contextual cues on inferring and remembering meanings. Applied Linguistics 9, 4: 402-413. [18.4]

Liu Na and Nation, I.S.P. (1985) Factors affecting guessing vocabulary in context. RELC Journal 16, 1: 33-42. [18.4]

Mondria, J-A. and Wit-de Boer, M. (1991) The effects of contextual richness on the guessability and the retention of words in a foreign language. Applied Linguistics 12, 3: 249-267. [18.4]

Moran, C. (1991) Lexical inferencing in EFL reading coursebooks: some implications of research. System 19, 4: 389-400. [18.4]

Palmberg, R. (1988) On lexical inferencing and language distance. Journal of Pragmatics 12: 207-214. [18.4]

Palmberg, R. (1987) On lexical inferencing and the young foreign-language learner. System 15, 1: 69-76. [18.4]

Paribakht, T.S. and Wesche, M. (1999) Reading and "incidental" L2 vocabulary acquisition: an introspective study of lexical inferencing. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 21: 195-224. [18.4]

Perkins, K. and Brutten, S.R. (1983) The effects of word frequency and contextual richness on ESL students' word identification abilities. Journal of Research in Reading 6, 2: l19-l28. [18.4]

Pitts, M., White, H. and Krashen, S. (1989) Acquiring second language vocabulary through reading: a replication of the Clockwork Orange study using second language acquirers. Reading in a Foreign Language 5, 2: 271-275. [18.4]

Raptis, H. (1997) Is second language vocabulary best learned by reading? Canadian Modern Language Review 53, 3: 566-580. [18.4]

Saragi, T., Nation, I.S.P. and Meister, G.F. (1978) Vocabulary learning and reading. System 6, 2: 72-78. [18.4]

Scherfer, P. (1993) Indirect L2 vocabulary learning. Linguistics 31: 1141-1153. [18.4]

Stein, M.J. (1993) The healthy inadequacy of contextual definition. In Huckin, Haynes and Coady: 203-214. [18.4]

Vougiouklis, P.S.K. (1990) Native and non-native readers' accuracy and confidence when guessing meanings of unknown words. BAAL proceedings . [18.4]

Vougiouklis, P.S.K. (1990) Lexical decomposition as a strategy for guessing unknown words. Unpublished MS. [18.4]

Watanabe, Y. (1997) Input, intake and retention: effects of increased processing on incidental learning of foreign vocabulary. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 19: 287-307. [18.4]

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Learning to Guess

Alderson, C. and Alvarez, G. (1978) The development of strategies for the assignment of semantic information to unknown lexemes in text. ERIC:ED177863. [18.5]

Bruton, A. and Samuda, V. (1981) Guessing words. Modern English Teacher 8, 3: 18-21. [18.5]

Buikema, J.L. and Graves, M.F. (1993) Teaching students to use context cues to infer word meanings. Journal of Reading 36, 6: 450-457. [18.5]

Chandrasegaran, A. (1980) Teaching the context clue approach to meaning. Guidelines 3: 61-68. [18.5]

Clarke, D.F. and Nation, I.S.P. (1980) Guessing the meanings of words from context: strategy and techniques. System 8, 3: 211-220. [18.5]

Dunmore, D. (1989) Using contextual clues to infer word meaning: an evaluation of current exercise types. Reading in a Foreign Language 6, 1: 337-347. [18.5]

Emans, R. and Fisher, G.M. (1967) Teaching the use of context clues. Elementary English 44, 3: 243-246. [18.5]

Fukkink, R.G. and de Glopper, K. (1998) Effects of instruction in deriving word meaning from context: a meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research 68, 4: 450-469. [18.5]

Hafner, L.E. (1965) A one-month experiment in teaching context aids in fifth grade. Journal of Educational Research 58, 10: 472-474. [18.5]

Harmon, J.M. (1999) Initial encounters with unfamiliar words in independent reading. Research in the Teaching of English 33, 3: 304-338. [18.5]

Huckin, T. and Bloch, J. (1993) Strategies for inferring word meanings: a cognitive model. In Huckin, Haynes and Coady: 153-178. [18.5]

Kern, R.G. (1989) Second language reading strategy instruction: its effects on comprehension and word inference ability. Modern Language Journal 73, 2: 135-149. [18.5]

Kuhn, M.R. and Stahl, S.A. (1998) Teaching children to learn word meanings from context. Journal of Literacy Research 30, 1: 119-138. [18.5]

Laufer, B. and Bensoussan, M. (1982) Meaning is in the eye of the beholder. English Teaching Forum 20, 2: 10-13. [18.5]

van Parreren, C.F. and Schouten-van Parreren, M. (1981) Contextual guessing: a trainable reader strategy. System 9, 3: 235-241. [18.5]

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