School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies

Vocabulary and Reading

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How Much Vocabulary is Needed for Reading?

Carver, R.P. (1994) Percentage of unknown vocabulary words in text as a function of the relative difficulty of the text: implications for instruction. Journal of Reading Behavior 26, 4: 413-437. [14.1]

Coady, J., Carrell, P., and Nation, P. (1985) The teaching of vocabulary in ESL from the perspective of schema theory. (unpublished paper). [14.1]

Hirsh, D. (1992) . The vocabulary demands and vocabulary learning opportunities in short novels Unpublished MA thesis, Victoria University of Wellington. [14.1]

Hirsh, D. and Nation, P. (1992) What vocabulary size is needed to read unsimplified texts for pleasure? Reading in a Foreign Language 8, 2: 689-696. [14.1]

Hu, M. and Nation, I.S.P. (Forthcoming) Vocabulary density and reading comprehension. . [14.1]

Jenkins, S. (1993) . The vocabulary burden of controlled and uncontrolled reading materials used with beginning ESL readers Unpublished MA thesis, Victoria University of Wellington. [14.1]

Klinmanee, N. (1994) . The contribution of simplified newspapers to a language course: vocabulary and topic coverage Unpublished MA research project, Victoria University of Wellington. [14.1]

Klinmanee, N. and Sopprasong, L. (1997) Bridging the vocabulary gap between secondary school and university: a Thai case study. Guidelines 19, 1: 1-10. [14.1]

Laufer, B. (1996) The lexical threshold of second language reading comprehension: what it is and how it relates to L1 reading ability. In K. Sajavaara and C. Fairweather (eds) Approaches to Second Language Acquisition. University of Jyvaskyla. Jyvaskyla Cross-Language Studies 17: 55-62. [14.1]

Laufer, B. (1992) How much lexis is necessary for reading comprehension? In Arnaud and Bejoint: 126-132. [14.1]

Laufer, B. (1992) Reading in a foreign language: how does L2 lexical knowledge interact with the reader's general academic ability? Journal of Research in Reading 15, 2: 95-103. [14.1]

Laufer, B. (1989) What percentage of text-lexis is essential for comprehension? In C. Lauren and M. Nordman (eds) Special Language: From Humans Thinking to Thinking Machines Multilingual Matters, Clevedon. [14.1]

Laufer, B. and Sim, D.D. (1985) Measuring and explaining the reading threshold needed for English for academic purposes texts. Foreign Language Annals 18, 5: 405-411. [14.1]

Meara, P. (1993) Tintin and the world service: a look at lexical environments. IATEFL 1993 Annual Conference Report : 32-37. [14.1]

Nation, I.S.P. and Coady, J. (1988) Vocabulary and reading. In Carter and McCarthy: 97-110. [14.1]

Ostyn, P. and Godin, P. (1985) RALEX: an alternative approach to language teaching. Modern Language Journal 69, 4: 346-355. [14.1]

Sopprasong, L. (1994) . Do the Thai secondary school reading textbooks help the students prepare for the vocabulary of the university entrance test? Unpublished MA research project, Victoria University of Wellington. [14.1]

Ward, J. (1999) How large a vocabulary do EAP Engineering students need? Reading in a Foreign Language 12, 2: 309-323. [14.1]

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Vocabulary Knowledge Helps Reading, Preteaching

Adams, S.J. (1982) Scripts and the recognition of unfamiliar vocabulary: enhancing second language reading skills. Modern Language Journal 66, 2: 155-159. [14.2]

Arlin, M. (1976) Causal priorities between comprehension subskills: word meaning and paragraph meaning. Journal of Reading Behavior 8, 4: 351-362. [14.2]

Baker, L. (1989) Developmental changes in readers' responses to unknown words. Journal of Reading Behavior 21, 3: 241-260. [14.2]

Balota, D.A., Flores d'Arcais, G.B. and Rayner, K. (eds) (1990) . Comprehension Processes in Reading Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, N.J.. [14.2]

Barnett, M.V. (1986) Syntactic and lexical\semantic skill in foreign language reading: importance and interaction. Modern Language Journal 70, 4: 343-349. [14.2]

Barron, R.F. and Stone, F. (1974) The effect of student constructed graphic post organizers upon learning vocabulary relationships. In P. Nacke (ed) Interaction: Reading and Practice for College-Adult Reading National Reading Conference: 172-175. [14.2]

Beck, I.L., Perfetti, C.A. and McKeown, M.G. (1982) The effects of long-term vocabulary instruction on lexical access and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology 74: 506-521. [14.2]

Chall, J.S. (1987) Two vocabularies for reading: recognition and meaning. In McKeown and Curtis: 7-17. [14.2]

Coady, J. (1979) A psycholinguistic model of the ESL reader. In R. Mackay et al (eds) Reading in a Second Language Newbury House, Rowley, Massachusetts: 5-12. [14.2]

Coady, J., Magoto, J., Hubbard, P., Graney, J. and Mokhtari, K. (1993) High frequency vocabulary and reading proficiency in ESL readers. In Huckin, Haynes and Coady: 217-228. [14.2]

Cunningham, J.W. and Moore, D.W. (1993) The contribution of understanding academic vocabulary to answering comprehension questions. Journal of Reading Behavior 25, 2: 171-180. [14.2]

Cziko, G.A. (1978) Differences in first- and second-language reading: the use of syntactic, semantic and discourse constraints. Canadian Modern Language Review 34: 473-489. [14.2]

Dale, E. (1956) The problem of vocabulary in reading. Educational Research Bulletin 25: 113-123. [14.2]

Davies, P. and Williams, P. (1974) Growth of word recognition skills. In Aspects of Early Reading Growth: A Longitudinal Study Schools Council Research and Development Project in Compensatory Education, Blackwell, Oxford: 13-53. [14.2]

Davis, F.B. (1968) Research in comprehension in reading. Reading Research Quarterly 4: 499-545. [14.2]

Dollerup, C., Glahn, E. and Hansen, C.R. (1983) Issues raised by studies of passive vocabularies in reading comprehension with advanced EFL-learners. Unpublished paper. [14.2]

Draper, A.G. and Moeller, G.H. (1971) I/we think with words. Phi Delta Kappan 52, 8: 482-484. [14.2]

Drum, P.A. (1983) Vocabulary knowledge: history.. In J.A. Niles and L.A. Harris (eds) Searches for meaning in reading/language processing and instruction 32nd yearbook of the National Reading Conference, Rochester, NY: 163-171. [14.2]

Dubin, F. (1989) The odd couple: reading and vocabulary. ELT Journal 43, 4: 283-287. [14.2]

Elivian, J. (1938) Word perception and word meaning in student reading in the intermediate grades. Education 59: 1-56. [14.2]

Finn, P.J. (1977-78) Word frequency, information theory, and cloze performance: a transfer theory of processing in reading. Reading Research Quarterly 13: 508-537. [14.2]

Goodman, K.S. (1976) Reading: a psycholinguistic guessing game. In H. Singer and R. Ruddell (eds) Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading International Reading Association, Newark. 2nd ed.. [14.2]

Graves, M.F. (1986) Vocabulary learning and instruction. Review of Research in Education 13: 49-89. [14.2]

Graves, M.F., Boettcher, J.A. and Peacock, J.L. (1980) Word frequency as a predictor of students' reading vocabularies. Journal of Reading Behavior 12, 2: 117-127. [14.2]

Graves, M.F., Ryder, R.J. and Slater, W.H. (1983) Family frequency as a predictor of word knowledge. In Niles and Harris. [14.2]

Guthrie, J.T. (ed) (1981) . Comprehension and Teaching: Research Reviews International Reading Association, Newark. [14.2]

Harris, A.J. and Jacobson, M.D. (1972) . Basic Elementary Reading Vocabularies Macmillan, New York. [14.2]

Hubbard, P., Coady, J., Graney, J., Mokhtari, K., Magoto, J. (1986) Report on a pilot study of the relationship of high frequency vocabulary knowledge and reading proficiency in ESL readers. Ohio University Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching 8: 48-57. [14.2]

Huckin, T., Haynes, M. and Coady, J. (eds) (1993) . Second Language Reading and Vocabulary Ablex, Norwood, N.J.. [14.2]

Hulstijn, J.H. (1988) Experiments with semi-artificial input in second language acquisition research. In B. Hammarberg (ed) Language Learning and Learner Language. Papers from a Conference held in Stockholm and bo 17-18 October, 1988. Scandinavian Working Papers on Bilingualism (issued from the Centre for Research on Bilingualism, University of Stockholm), 8: 28-40. [14.2]

James, M. (1996) . Improving second language reading comprehension: a computer-assisted vocabulary development approach Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Hawaii. [14.2]

Jenkins, J.R., Matlock, B. and Slocum, T.A. (1989) Two approaches to vocabulary instruction: the teaching of individual word meanings and practice in deriving word meanings from context. Reading Research Quarterly 24, 2: 215-235. [14.2]

Johnson, D. and Pearson, P.D. (1984) . Teaching Reading Vocabulary Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York. [14.2]

Johnson, P. (1982) Effects on reading comprehension of building background knowledge. TESOL Quarterly 16, 4: 503-516. [14.2]

Johnson, P. (1981) Effects on reading comprehension of language complexity and cultural background of a text. TESOL Quarterly 15, 2: 169-181. [14.2]

Kameenui, E.J., Carnine, D.C. and Freschi, R. (1982) Effects of text construction and instructional procedures for teaching word meanings on comprehension and recall. Reading Research Quarterly 17, 3: 367-388. [14.2]

King, J.K., Holley, F.M. and Weber, B. (1975) A new reading. In Perspective: a New Freedom, ACTFL Review 7: 169-217. [14.2]

Laufer, B. (1987) Teaching vocabulary: the lexical perspective of reading comprehension. English Teachers' Journal (Israel) 35: 58-67. [14.2]

McKeown, M.G., Beck, I.L., Omanson, R.C. and Perfetti, C. (1983) The effects of long-term vocabulary instruction on reading comprehension: a replication. Journal of Reading Behavior 15, 1: 3-18. [14.2]

Mezynski, K. (1983) Issues concerning the acquisition of knowledge: effects of vocabulary training on reading comprehension. Review of Educational Research 53, 2: 253-279. [14.2]

Nacke, P. (ed) (1974) . Interaction: reading and practice for college-adult reading National Reading Conference, Clemson, S.C.. [14.2]

Niles, J.A. and Harris, L.A. (eds) (1983) . Searches for meaning in reading/language processing and instruction 32nd Yearbook of National Reading Conference, Rochester, N.Y.. [14.2]

Omanson, R.C. (1985) Knowing words and understanding texts. In T.H. Carr (ed) The Development of Reading Skills. Jossey-Bass Inc., San Francisco. No. 27 New Directions for Child Development: 35-53. [14.2]

Omanson, R.C., Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G. and Perfetti, C.A. (1984) Comprehension of texts with unfamiliar versus recently taught words: assessment of alternative models. Journal of Educational Psychology 76, 6: l253-l268. [14.2]

Palmberg, R. (1985) Making sense of foreign vocabulary - evidence from a fairytale. Faculty of Education, Abo Akademi In keViberg (ed) Bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition Scandinavian Working Papers on Bilingualism 4: 68-84. [14.2]

Pany, D., Jenkins, J.R. and Schreck, J. (1982) Vocabulary instruction: effects on word knowledge and reading comprehension. Learning Disability Quarterly 5: 202-215. [14.2]

Parry, K. (1997) Vocabulary and comprehension: two portraits. In Coady and Huckin: 55-68. [14.2]

Perfetti, C.A. and Lesgold, A.M. (1979) Coding and comprehension in skilled reading and implications for reading instruction. In L.B. Resnick et al (eds) Theory and Practice of Early Reading Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J.: 57-84. [14.2]

Perfetti, C.A. and Lesgold, A.M. (1977) Discourse comprehension and sources of individual differences. In M. Just and P. Carpenter (eds) Cognitive Processes in Comprehension Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J.: 141-183. [14.2]

Rosenshine, B.V. (1980) Skill hierarchies in reading comprehension. In Spiro et al: 535-554. [14.2]

Ruddell, M.R. (1994) Vocabulary knowledge and comprehension: a comprehension-process view of complex literacy relationships. In R.B. Ruddell, M.R. Ruddell and H. Singer (eds) Theoretical Models and Processes of Reading. 4th edition. International Reading Association, Newark, Del.: 414-447. [14.2]

Russell, D.H. and Fea, H.R. (1963) Research on teaching reading. In N.L. Gage (ed) Handbook of Research on Teaching Rand McNally, Chicago: 883-896. [14.2]

Ryder, R.J. and Graves, M.F. (1994) Vocabulary instruction presented prior to reading in two basal readers. The Elementary School Journal 95, 2: 139-153. [14.2]

Ryder, R.J. and Hughes, M. (1985) The effect on text comprehension of word frequency. Journal of Educational Research 78, 5: 286-291. [14.2]

Schachter, W.S. (1979) An investigation of the effects of vocabulary instruction and schemata orientation upon reading comprehension. Dissertation Abstracts International 39: A7303. [14.2]

Schouten-van Parreren, C. (1991) Reading and vocabulary learning. Paper presented at the Vocabulary Acquisition in L2 Symposium at the University of Malaga, December 1991. [14.2]

Shand, M.A. (1990) The role of lexical processing in second language reading. TESOL-GRAM 17, 1: 5-6 & 17, 2:8-10. [14.2]

Sim, D. and Bensoussan, M. (1979) Control of contextualized function and content words as it affects EFL reading comprehension test scores. In R. Mackay, B. Barkman, and R.R. Jordan (eds) Reading in a Second Language Newbury House, Massachusetts: 36-44. [14.2]

Smith, F. (1982) . Understanding Reading Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York. [14.2]

Spearitt, D. (1972) Identification of subskills of reading comprehension by maximum likelihood factor analysis. Reading Research Quarterly 8: 92-111. [14.2]

Spiro, R.J., Bruce, B.C. and Brewer, W.F. (eds) (1980) . Theoretical Issues in Reading Comprehension Erlbaum, New Jersey. [14.2]

Stahl, S.A. (1990) Beyond the instrumentalist hypothesis: some relationships between word meanings and comprehension. Technical report no. 505 of the Center for the Study of Reading, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. [14.2]

Stahl, S.A. (1983) Differential word knowledge and reading comprehension. Journal of Reading Behaviour 15, 4: 33-50. [14.2]

Stahl, S.A. and Fairbanks, M.M. (1986) The effects of vocabulary instruction: a model-based meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research 56, 1: 72-110. [14.2]

Stahl, S.A. and Jacobson, M.G. (1986) Vocabulary difficulty, prior knowledge, and text comprehension. Journal of Reading Behavior 18, 4: 309-323. [14.2]

Stahl, S.A., Hare, V.C., Sinatra, R. and Gregory, J.F. (1991) Defining the role of prior knowledge and vocabulary in reading comprehension: the retiring of number 41. Journal of Reading Behavior 23, 4: 487-508. [14.2]

Stahl, S.A., Jacobson, M.G., Davis, C.E. and Davis, R.L. (1989) Prior knowledge and difficult vocabulary in the comprehension of unfamiliar text. Reading Research Quarterly 24: 27-43. [14.2]

Stanovich, K.E. (1980) Toward an interactive-compensatory model of individual differences in the development of reading fluency. Reading Research Quarterly 16: 32-71. [14.2]

Stratton, E.P. and Nacke, P.L. (1974) The role of vocabulary knowledge in comprehension. In Nacke: 185-192. [14.2]

Swaby, B.E. (1977) The effects of advance organizers and vocabulary introduction on the reading comprehension of sixth grade students. Dissertation Abstracts International 39: A115. [14.2]

Thompson, B. (1982) Initial vocabularies for reading. Set - research information for teachers NZCER, Wellington: No. 2, Item 3(a). [14.2]

Thorndike, R.L. (1973) Reading as reasoning. Reading Research Quarterly 9: 135-147. [14.2]

Tuinman, J.J. and Brady, M.E. (1974) How does vocabulary account for variance on reading comprehension tests? A preliminary instructional analysis. In Nacke: 176-184. [14.2]

Wixson, K.K. (1986) Vocabulary instruction and children's comprehension of basal stories. Reading Research Quarterly 21, 3: 317-329. [14.2]

Wolfle, L.M. and McGee, L.M. (1979) On the determination of causal ordering between vocabulary and comprehension. Journal of Reading Behavior 11, 3: 273-277. [14.2]

Yap K.O. (1979) Vocabulary - building blocks of comprehension? Journal of Reading Behavior 11, 1: 49-59. [14.2]

Yap K.O. (1979) On the determination of causal ordering - between vocabulary and comprehension - a rejoinder. Journal of Reading Behavior 11, 3: 279-280. [14.2]

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Readability

Brown, J.D. (1997) An EFL readability index. University of Hawaii Working Papers in ESL 15, 2: 85-119. [14.3]

Bruce, B., Rubin, A., Starr, K. and Liebling, C. (1983) . Vocabulary Bias in Reading Curricula Technical Report No. 280, Center for the Study of Reading, pub. Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc.. [14.3]

Carrell, P. (1987) Readability in ESL. Reading in a Foreign Language 4, 1: 21-40. [14.3]

Chall, J.S. (1958) . Readability: an appraisal of research and application Ohio State Bureau of Education Research Monographs. [14.3]

Davis, F.B. (1972) Psychometric research on comprehension in reading. Reading Research Quarterly 7: 628-678. [14.3]

Elley, W.B. (1969) The assessment of readability by noun frequency counts. Reading Research Quarterly 4, 3: 411-427. [14.3]

Elley, W.B. and Croft, A.C. (1989) . Assessing the difficulty of reading materials: the noun frequency method New Zealand Council for Educational Research, Wellington. [14.3]

Klare, G.R. (1974-75) Assessing readability. Reading Research Quarterly l0: 62-l02. [14.3]

Klare, G.R. (1963) . The Measurement of Readability Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa. [14.3]

Serra, M.C. (1953) The concept burden of instructional materials. Elementary School Journal 53: 508-512. [14.3]

Spache, G. (1953) A new readability formula for primary grade reading materials. Elementary School Journal 53: 410-413. [14.3]

Spaulding, S. (1951) Two formulas for estimating the reading difficulty of Spanish. Educational Research Bulletin 30: 117-124. [14.3]

Stone, C.R. (1956) Measuring difficulty of primary reading material: a constructive criticism of Spache's measure. Elementary School Journal 57: 36-41. [14.3]

Vernon, P.E. (1950) The estimation of difficulty of vocabulary. British Journal of Educational Psychology 20: 77-82. [14.3]

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Learning Vocabulary Through Reading

Bensoussan, M. (1992) Learners' spontaneous translations in an L2 reading comprehension task: vocabulary knowledge and use of schemata. In Arnaud and Bejoint: 102-112. [14.4]

Bricourt, S. (1999) Coping with new words when reading. English Teaching Forum 37, 4: 24. [14.4]

Carr, E.M. and Mazur-Stewart, M. (1988) The effects of the vocabulary overview guide on vocabulary comprehension and retention. Journal of Reading Behavior 20, 1: 43-62. [14.4]

Carter, R. (1981) Studying language: an integrated approach to lexis in literature. English in Education 15, 3: 41-48. [14.4]

Coady, J. (1997) L2 vocabulary acquisition through extensive reading. In Coady and Huckin: 225-237. [14.4]

Cunningham, A.E. and Stanovich, K.E. (1991) Tracking the unique effects of print exposure in children: Associations with vocabulary, general knowledge, and spelling. Journal of Educational Psychology 83, 2: 264-274. [14.4]

Day, R.R., Omura, C., and Hiramatsu, M. (1991) Incidental EFL vocabulary learning and reading. Reading in a Foreign Language 7, 2: 541-551. [14.4]

Dolch, E.W. (1951) The use of vocabulary lists in predicting readability and in developing reading materials. Elementary English 28: 142-9, 177. [14.4]

Dolch, E.W. (1928) Vocabulary burden. Journal of Educational Research 17, 3: 170-183. [14.4]

Grabe, W. (1991) Current developments in second language reading research. TESOL Quarterly 25, 3: 375-406. [14.4]

Grabe, W. and Stoller, F. (1997) Reading and vocabulary development in a second language: a case study. In Coady and Huckin: 98-122. [14.4]

Haynes, M. and Baker, I. (1993) American and Chinese readers learning from lexical familiarization in English text. In Huckin, Haynes and Coady: 130-152. [14.4]

Horst, M. and Meara, P. (1999) Test of a model for predicting second language lexical growth through reading. Canadian Modern Language Review 56, 2: 308-328. [14.4]

Hwang K. and Nation, P. (1989) Reducing the vocabulary load and encouraging vocabulary learning through reading newspapers. Reading in a Foreign Language 6, 1: 323-335. [14.4]

Hwang Kyongho (1989) . Reading newspapers for the improvement of vocabulary and reading skills Unpublished MA thesis, Victoria University of Wellington. [14.4]

Krashen, S.D. (1989) We acquire vocabulary and spelling by reading: additional evidence for the input hypothesis. Modern Language Journal 73, 4: 440-462. [14.4]

Messa, Carmen de Mir (1984) The handling of vocabulary in reading texts. Modern English Teacher 11, 3: 15-22. [14.4]

Ninio, A. (1983) Joint book reading as a multiple vocabulary acquisition device. Developmental Psychology 19, 3: 445-451. [14.4]

Paribakht, T.S. and Wesche, M.B. (1993) Reading comprehension and second language development in a comprehension-based ESL programme. TESL Canada Journal 11, 1: 9-27. [14.4]

Parry, K. (1991) Building a vocabulary through academic reading. TESOL Quarterly 25, 4: 629-653. [14.4]

Rash, J., Johnson, T.D. and Gleadow, N. (1984) Acquisition and retention of written words by kindergarten children under varying learning conditions. Reading Research Quarterly 4: 452-460. [14.4]

Schouten-van-Parreren, C. (1992) Individual differences in vocabulary acquisition: a qualitative experiment in the first phase of secondary education. In Arnaud and Bejoint: 94-101. [14.4]

Schwanenflugel, P.J., Stahl, S.A. and McFalls, E.L. (1997) Partial word knowledge and vocabulary growth during reading comprehension. Journal of Literacy Research 29, 4: 531-553. [14.4]

Senechal, M. and Cornell, E.H. (1993) Vocabulary acquisition through shared reading experiences. Reading Research Quarterly 28, 4: 361-374. [14.4]

Shand, M.A. (1991) The use of dual language editions in second language acquisition. TESOL-GRAM 18, 1: 6-7. [14.4]

Shand, M.A. (1990) Lexical processing and second language comprehension. Unpublished paper. [14.4]

Swanborn, M.S.L. and de Glopper, K. (1999) Incidental word learning while reading: a meta-analysis. Reveiw of Educational Research 69, 3: 261-285. [14.4]

Wesche, M. and Paribakht, T.S. (1998) The influence of task in reading-based L2 vocabulary acquisition: evidence from introspective studies. In Haastrup and Viberg: 19-59. [14.4]

White, T.G., Graves, M.F. and Slater, W.H. (1990) Growth of reading vocabulary in diverse elementary schools: decoding and word meaning. Journal of Educational Psychology 82, 2: 281-290. [14.4]

Wode, H. (1999) Incidental vocabulary acquisition in the foreign language classroom. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 21: 243-258. [14.4]

Zimmerman, C.B. (1997) Do reading and interactive vocabulary instruction make a difference? An empirical study. TESOL Quarterly 31, 1: 121-140. [14.4]

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Extensive Reading

Elley, W.B. (1991) Acquiring literacy in a second language: the effect of book-based programs. Language Learning 41, 3: 375-411. [14.5]

Elley, W.B. (1981) The role of reading in bilingual contexts.. In J. T. Guthrie: 227-254. [14.5]

Elley, W.B. (1980) A comparison of 'content-interest' and 'structuralist' reading programmes in Niue primary schools. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies 15: 39-53. [14.5]

Elley, W.B. and Mangubhai, F. (1981) The long-term effects of a book flood on children's language growth. Directions 7: 15-24. [14.5]

Elley, W.B. and Mangubhai, F. (1981) . The Impact of a Book Flood in Fiji Primary Schools New Zealand Council for Educational Research, Wellington. [14.5]

Rowe, L. (1996) Let the children read: Early extensive exposure to reading using a school library. The Language Teacher 20, 5: 23-27, 45. [14.5]

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